Volume 5 Issue 1

PaperID: AJERD0501-01; Pages: 1-13

Variability of Rice Hush and Kaolin Clay as Locally Available Geopolymer Materials on Cement Stabilized Lateritic Soil

Author(s): Christopher Ehizemhen IGIBAH, Olugbenga Oludolapo AMU

Abstract: The strength of a fine-grained lateritic soil from three (3) different localities on Abuja – Lokoja road where road failure happen was treated with rice husk ash (RSA), cement and sodium silicate activator (SSA), with varying percentage examined by means of Atterberg, CBR, and triaxial shear tests. This result confirms that 6% cement– 8% KCP mixtures, and 6% cement–8%-GP mixtures attain the maximum CBR value, respectively, 100% and 125.75%. Lateritic soil treated with 2% stabilizer yielded CBR values of more than 405%, that is for soil treated with 6% sodium silicate, the CBR values increased at least by 14% compared to unimproved soil. Likewise, the outcome of triaxial compressive strength demonstrates that the cohesion of the stabilized sample was low at the highest angle of internal friction which makes soil very plastic. The lowest cohesion of 15 kN/m2, 11 kN/m2 and 10 kN/m2 was achieved at 8% KCP, 4% SSA and 6% RHA at highest frictional angle of 20°, 28° and 28° for KCP, SSA and RHA respectively.

PaperID: AJERD0501-02; Pages: 14-21

Evaluating the Filtration and Mud Cake Properties of Clay Deposits from a Part of Niger Delta, Up-Agbarho, Ughelli Town, Delta State, Nigeria

Author(s): Felix Elumiyovwino OTITIGBE

Abstract: The drilling mud clay, till date, is still being imported, and there is no insight on when it will stop except our local clay is found suitable as the imported clay. This is the basis of this research work. This study, to a large extent, will reduce the huge millions of dollars spent on importing the clay, and stop the additional cost created on the overall cost of drilling expenses, and increase revenue generation for the government. In addition, generate employment opportunity and trigger industrial growth. This experimental work evaluates the suitability of local clay filtration properties (water loss and filter cake thickness) and was compared with the imported mud clay to ensure it agreed with the acceptable API specification standard. From the experimental values, it’s found the local clay has high fluid losses as seen the values 95.1 cc, 63.0 cc, 47.4 cc, 34.2 cc, 25.7 cc, 19.2 cc than 9.9 cc, 3.8 cc, 3.2 cc, 2.8 cc, 2.6 cc, 1.8 cc of imported clay. The mud cake thickness value of the local clay-mud is 2.50 mm while the conventional, is 1.03 mm. This indicates that the local mud cake had high water loss than the conventional mud, and which causes hole problems like: tight hole which resulted in excessive drag, increase in pressure surges due to reduced hole diameter, differential sticking due to an increased pipe contact with filter cake, and excessive formation damage and evaluation problems with wire-line logs. However, after beneficiating the local drilling mud with starch and dextrid, the result review dextrid was more superior to starch on both drilling mud samples. In addition, the local clay mud exhibited the characteristic of an API specification for drilling mud if further beneficiated, which then the local content development agenda would have achieved, would then be use as a substitute for the conventional imported clay and employment and industrial development and growth.

PaperID: AJERD0501-03; Pages: 22-30

D-Optimal Optimization of Desert Date Oil Extraction

Author(s): Saidat Olanipekun GIWA, Kabir Abogunde ABDULYEKEEN, Ifeanyi Fredrick EKWUNIFE, Kabir GARBA, Abdulwahab GIWA

Abstract: This work was carried out to investigate the optimum conditions of temperature, time, solvent to biomass ratio and particles size on n-hexane extraction efficiency measured in terms of amount of oil extracted in g. D-Optimal Design of Response Surface Methodology was used to obtain 28 experimental runs, according to which oil was extracted from ground desert date seed kernel with the aid of Soxhlet apparatus. The particle size was used as a categorical factor at two different levels (0.6 mm and 1 mm) and other factors were numeric in nature. The temperature, time and solvent to biomass ratio were in the range of 50-70 oC, 1-4 h and 10 – 20 mL/g respectively. After the runs, obtained experimental data were fitted to cubic model and statistical significance of the model was evaluated using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results obtained showed that the reduced cubic equation obtained was significant statistically with p-value of 0.001, which was found to be less than 5% at 95% confidence level. Also, based on the same criterion, the significant terms in the model were discovered to include time, solvent to biomass ratio and particle size. It was, however, noticed that the effect of temperature was insignificant on the model. The optimum operating conditions found was 60 oC, 4 h, 15 (150 mL/10 g) and 0.6 mm. The maximum amount of oil extracted experimentally at these conditions was 6.08 g, which compared well with the predicted value of 6.117 g.

PaperID: AJERD0501-04; Pages: 31-40

Effect of California Bearing Ratio and Unconfined Compressive Strength Analysis on Mechanical Strength and Microstructure of Kaolin Clay Powder Blend SSA Geopolymer, and Its Behaviour at Different Percentages

Author(s): Olugbenga Oludolapo AMU, Christopher Ehizemhen IGIBAH, Bamitale Dorcas OLUYEMI-AYIBIOWU, Olumuyiwa Samson ADERINOLA, Adetayo Oluwaseun ADEDAPO, Lucia Omolayo AGASHUA, Ayobami Adebola BUSARI

Abstract: The stabilization capability of kaolin clay powder (KCP), Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and rice husk ash (RHA) was scrutinized using laboratory scrutiny. This was meant at assessing the effect of KCP, OPC and RHA on the stabilization of three lateritic soils for use as sub-base pavement layer materials. Three soils (Soil A, B and C) were improved with various percentages (via weight of dry soil) at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% for all stabilizing agents and compacted via BSL (British Standard Light) energy. Their impacts were assessed on the strength physiognomies such as UCS (unconfined compressive strength), OMC (optimum moisture content), and California bearing ratio (CBR), and MDD (maximum dry density tests based on ASTM (American Standard Testing Materials) codes. The result reveals that MDD improved with increase in the quantities of all the additive (SSA, KCP and geopolymer) content, while OMC for KCP reduces from 18.65% at 0% to 14.02% at 10%. Both Sodium Silicate Activator (SSA) and geopolymer increase from 18.65% at 0% to 18.86% and 22.20% at 10% respectively.  Similarly, it displays highest CBR of the soil from 10.88% at 0% to 12.84%, 112.95% and 144.45% for SSA, KCP and geopolymer, this specify that lateritic soil treated with 2% stabilizer yielded CBR values of more than 405%.

PaperID: AJERD0501-05; Pages: 41-50

Improving Thermal Comfort and Ventilation in Commercial Buses in Nigeria in Covid-19 Era

Author(s): Ola KAMIYO

Abstract: Studies abound on thermal comfort assessment of passenger cabin of various types of cars. Not many are known for commuter buses especially the types common in African cities with hot and humid weather. Also, concerns have been raised on the spread of the corona virus among passengers of these often-overcrowded buses. This study therefore investigates experimentally the level of heat build-up within the passenger segments of Volkswagen minibus, small and big Mercedes Benz 911 commuter buses in Lagos, Nigeria under varying conditions with the aim of suggesting ventilation methods that can mitigate the challenges. Using a sensitive digital thermometer, air temperature in the passenger segmentis measured at strategic locations within the bus for varying number of passengers when loading, when in motion and when held-up in traffic. The results show that, when loading, the number of passengers in the vehicle correlates with the rate of metabolic heat generated. While in motion, air temperature drops steadily as the bus speed increases due to cool outdoor air inflow. However, when in traffic, the heat level becomes very high with the temperature up to 41 oC in some cases. Air convection within such environment encourages the spread of the corona virus. To mitigate the challenges, two cost-effective and efficient ventilation methods are proposed. It is believed that enforcing the implementation of the ventilation methods will not only greatly improve the comfort of the passengers in the buses but also minimize number of passengers getting infected with the corona virus while commuting.

PaperID: AJERD0501-06; Pages: 51-64

Development and Performance Evaluation of a Castor Oil Extractor

Author(s): Emmanuel Ifeoluwa OJEKUNLE, John ISA and Ayoola Patrick OLALUSI

Abstract: This paper presents the development and performance evaluation of a castor seed oil expeller. The machine’s various components were designed using standard engineering equations and fabricated with locally available materials. The oil expeller was powered by a 3 phase, 4.0 kW electric motor and a 1:20 speed reduction gear. The study was carried out using physical properties such as screw speed, roasting time and roasting temperature. 500g per run (27 runs in total) of castor seeds were subjected to different temperatures, (80, 100 and 120 oC) and at different roasting times, (10, 20 and 30 minutes). The screw speed was varied at 27, 39 and 51 rpm. The effect of the roasting temperature was seen to increase the efficiency of the oil expeller from 42% to 63% as it increases from 80 oC to 105 oC and then reduces the efficiency to 47% as it further increases to 120 oC. Also, the increase in roasting time from 10 minutes to 30 minutes gave an overall increase in the efficiency of the machine from 42% to 62% and the increase in screw speed from 27 rpm to 39 rpm reduces the efficiency of the expeller from 62% to 60% and further increase in the speed of the expeller increased the efficiency back to 67%. The efficiency was highest at the roasting temperature of 100 oC, roasting time of 20 minutes and screw speed of 51 rpm. The highest efficiency of the expeller is 69.4% and it has a capacity of 6.74 kg/hour. The castor seed oil expeller is recommended for use in small scale production of castor seed oil.

PaperID: AJERD0501-07; Pages: 65-75

Influence of Locally Sourced Waste Foundry Sand on Workability and Compressive Strength of Normal-Strength Concrete

Author(s): Ash-Shu’ara Marafa SALMAN, Mutiu Adelodun AKINPELU, Abdulrahman ABDULRASAQ, Ezekiel Adeyemi ADETORO

Abstract: Since the early nineteenth century, sustainable utilization of industrial by-products and agro-residue ashes have been at the forefront of researches owing to the impacts of rapid urbanization and development. This study presents experimental work on the re-utilization of already discarded waste foundry sand (WFS) sourced from local iron pot maker in Osogbo, Osun State. Fine aggregate was partially replaced with three different compositions of WFS (0, 10, 20 and 30%) using batching by weight method. The slump cone test was performed on the fresh concrete samples in order to determine their workabilities while the compressive strength test was performed at 7th, 21st and 28th-day curing ages. The compressive strength test is most used to assess the load-bearing capacity of concrete. The hardened densities for the concrete samples were also established at 7th, 21st and 28th-day curing ages. Results from the compressive strength test showed that as more WFS was incorporated into concrete mixes, so does the compressive strength increases across all curing ages. The results also showed a marginal increase in compressive strengths at 28th-day curing age in concrete samples containing WFS. Slump values for the concrete samples increase as more WFS is incorporated into mixes with exception of 30% WFS whose slump value decrease slightly compared to samples containing 10% of WFS. The hardened densities of concrete samples fall within 2200 – 2600kg/m3 which is regarded as the density of normal-weight concrete across all curing ages. Based on these results, WFS sourced locally can effectively and efficiently be utilized to produce plain concrete.

PaperID: AJERD0501-08; Pages: 76-92

Traditionally Fermented Alcoholic Beverages in Sub-Saharan Africa: Comprehensive Studies

Author(s): Nathaniel Nwachukwu FRIDAY, Jeremiah David BALA, Sally Adaobi IBEKIE, Dalila ABDULLAHI, Oloruntoba Samuel JOB, Cinwon Joy TSEBAM, Nasiru Usman ADABARA

Abstract: Fermentation processes are believed to have been developed over thousands of years in order to preserve food for times of scarcity, to impart desirable flavour to foods, and to reduce toxicity. A diversity of fermented products, including porridges, beverages (alcoholic and non-alcoholic), breads and pancakes, fermented meat, fish, vegetables, dairy products and condiments are produced from both edible and inedible raw materials in many countries. Today, fermentation is still widely practised as a household or rural-level technology in many developing countries, but comparatively very few operations are carried out at an industrial level. Fermentation is a low-input enterprise and provides the vast population of developing and under developed nations characterised by limiting purchasing power, access to safe, inexpensive and nutritious foods. The tradition of fermented beverages is long embedded in many cultures, and despite traditional production technologies remaining, there is potential for extension services to introduce some improved methods, particularly those for hygiene and safety. Microorganisms associated with these fermentative processes include Rhizopus oryzae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium funiculosum, Penicillium citrinum, Giberella fujikuroi and Botryodiplodia theobromae. Traditional methods for fermentation that yielded alcoholic beverages in developing countries and indeed Africa has long been in existence-since prehistoric times. Amongst these are burukutu and pito (majorly in Western Africa), Palm wine (Sub-Saharan Africa), ‘Urwaga’ in Kenya, ‘Kasiksi’ in DR Congo, ‘Urwagwa’ in Rwanda and Burundi, Tej in Ethiopia, ‘Mes’ in Eritrea. Although there are some health concerns attributed to the production of these traditionally fermented alcoholic drinks, standardization of procedures and proper hygienic practices can effectively control these health threats.

PaperID: AJERD0501-09; Pages: 93-109

Extraction of Nano-Chitosan from Waste White Shrimp Shells for Removal of Phenol from Refinery Wastewater: Optimization of Chitosan Synthesis and Phenol Adsorption

Author(s): Abubakar Abubakar IBRAHIM, Abdulfatai JIMOH, Yahya Muibat DIEKOLA, Manase AUTA

Abstract: The waste generated from production and processing of aquatic and petroleum resources constitute major source of pollution in our environment. However, this research work aims at optimization of both phenol adsorption and low molecular weight nano – chitosan synthesis from waste white shrimp shells. The optimization of nano – chitosan from waste white shrimp shells was carried out. Design of experiment (DOE) technique was considered to prepared an experimental matrix using central composite design (CCD) approach. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the process parameters to achieved model validated degree of demineralization, deproteination, deacetylation of chitin and nano-chitosan size efficiency. Results revealed degree of demineralization, deproteination of chitin and deacetylation of chitosan were 99.57%, 96.4% and 91.20% respectively. The molecular weight of chitosan was 21374 Da, which indicates that the chitosan obtained was low molecular weight and has the potential for various technological usage. Analysis of the synthesized nano–chitosan displays a size of 84.36 nm through Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) with more surface areas for phenol removal and adsorption processes. Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) and High-resolution Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used for characterization. The concentrations of refinery wastewater before and after treatment was carried out with aid of Double beam UV – spectrophotometer and obtained values was 7.18 and 0.033 mg/l respectively. The removal efficiency of phenol was obtained from RSM and model validation values for both experimental and predicted values of 97.22 % and 97.61% respectively, at factors of 3.86 g, 59.20 oC and 98 mins. The obtained results agreement with the statistical model, confirming that RSM can be used effectively to optimize process parameters.

PaperID: AJERD0501-10; Pages: 110-123

Joint Space Robot Arm Trajectory Planning Using Septic Function

Author(s): Abubakar Ademola RAJI, Olumuyiwa Sunday ASAOLU, Theddeus Tochukwu AKANO

Abstract: The research examines the use of 7th order polynomials to model the trajectory of an industrial manipulator. Using a joint space scheme, a pick and place trajectory planning is conducted in this paper. Using only the Septic Polynomial, this research proposes a unique method for obtaining zero starting and endpoint velocities and accelerations with decreased jerk. This is to suppress errors in trajectory tracking and unwanted resonance from being induced on the mechanical structure.  Whenever the acceleration of a robot arm changes, the corresponding jerk function (the time derivative of acceleration) will exhibit numerous spikes. Therefore, any approach that permits discontinuous acceleration functions to be employed in robot joint-space trajectory development is inappropriate and should be avoided. As a result of their discontinuity in acceleration and hence endless jerk spikes, the linear velocity with polynomial blends and the third-order polynomial becomes problematic when adopted for industrial operations. The strategy employed in this research involves the addition of two “dummy” points in between the start and end points; whilst simultaneously solving the boundary and initial conditions at those points. Utilising the MATLAB robotics toolbox, the trajectory was evaluated using a PUMA 560 serial manipulator. Based on this model-setup, the septic trajectory is established to be quicker than the Linear Segment with Polynomial Blend (LSPB) variation. Also, infinite values and discontinuities of acceleration at the end points were addressed appropriately by adopting the septic function.

PaperID: AJERD0501-11; Pages: 124-133

Suitability of Bovine-Bone as an Alternative for Dental Filler

Author(s): Eugenia Obiageli OBIDIEGWU, Henry Ekene MGBEMERE, Christian Emeka EMEODI

Abstract: Tooth decay is one of the most common teeth diseases, which usually leads to cavities unless prevented. Dental cavities are holes in the teeth that are formed when acid in the mouth erodes the enamel. This is a problem that has plagued man for a really long time. Several researchers have proposed different solutions to mitigate the problem with various biocompatibility and other challenges associated with each available remedy. For an instance, the use of bio ceramics like zirconia as a dental filler was widely accepted due to its inertness as well as high hardness value. However, high brittleness and poor re-sorption limits its usage. Therefore, to the best of researchers’ knowledge, investigation of materials properties for suitability and consequently selection for dental filler is an open gap. In this regard, this study examined the suitability of bovine bone as dental fillers. Ten Bovine bone sample was ground to 300 µm and calcined at temperatures from 600°C-900oC at 100oC intervals. The different samples were held in the oven for two hours and four hours at each temperature. Comparative analyses of the samples were carried out using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS), to examine the chemical content of the control sample, i.e., Bovine bone before calcination, and compared with Bovine bone after calcination. AAS showed an increase in Na and Ca with an average percentage increase of 5%. The samples were also placed in Simulated Body Fluid (Saliva) for two weeks and four weeks respectively, to study how the sample would behave in the mouth. The results did not show any sample decomposition and the resulting pH value was indicative of a resorption of hydroxyapatite. Scanning Electron Microscope also revealed an increase in the size of the particles which is a case for the increase in calcium content. These results point towards the viability of Bovine bone as a suitable material for dental fillers.

PaperID: AJERD0501-12; Pages: 134-146

Development of a Semi-Automatic Hand-Pushed Weeder

Author(s): Arinola Bola AJAYI and Michael Tomiwa FAGBOLA

Abstract: When farmers plant their crops, as the crops are germinating, unwanted plants grow in between them thereby increasing plant population density and competing for nutrients with the main crops and reducing yield at harvest. Farm crop yield reduction due to weeds alone is estimated to be 16 – 42% depending on the crop and accessibility of the location. In developing countries, such as Nigeria, mechanized farming is not common, it is manual labour or semi-mechanized farming that are prevalent. Manual labour can involve up to one-third of the cost of cultivation. Some farmers employ the use of herbicides. In this paper, semi-automated hand-pushed weeder that is cost-effective and less stressful for weeding operations in small-sized farms is developed. The weeder is developed to be used by farmers to replace manual labour, which is time-consuming, stressful, and costly. This weeder will reduce the cost of weeding operation and eliminate the environmental damage caused using herbicides to control weeds in farming and increase organically grown agricultural products as demand for non-chemical weeding increases. The weeder consists mainly of a 5 hp two-strokes petrol engine, with 2 – and 4 – interchangeable sets of weeding blades, and gear transmission system. The weeding blades are L-shaped and were mounted on a horizontal shaft, driven by an attachment through connection to the gearbox, which transmitted the rotary motion of the engine to the blades, 2- or 4- sets of blades were used to perform the task of weeding while the operator pushes the weeder during weeding operations. Tests were carried out to evaluate the machine based on fuel consumption and theoretical field capacity on soil with the moisture content of 7.5% and 13.5% at three different engine speeds of 1,500, 3,000, and 4,000 rpms. During the tests, it was discovered that, with the use of two sets of weeding blades at 1,500 rpm and soil moisture content of 7.5%, the fuel consumption was 1.52 l/h with theoretical field capacity of 0.56 m2/s. For 4- sets of weeding blades at an engine speed of 4,000 rpm and soil moisture content of 13.5%, the maximum fuel consumption of 1.84 l/h and theoretical field capacity of 3.00 m2/s were observed. In conclusion, it was discovered that using four sets of weeding blades at a speed of 4,000 rpm maximizes theoretical field capacity and minimizes the fuel consumption.

PaperID: AJERD0501-13; Pages: 147-154

Development of a Convolutional Neural Network-Based Object Recognition System for Uncovered Gutters and Bollards

Author(s): Ibrahim Adepoju ADEYANJU, Muhammed Adekunle AZEEZ, Oluwaseyi Olawale BELLO, Taofeeq Alabi BADMUS and Mayowa Oyedepo OYEDIRAN

Abstract: Machine learning and deep learning have advanced considerably over the last few years with machine intelligence transitioning from laboratory to several industrial applications. Among the deep learning techniques, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) have been shown to have one of the best performances in image recognition. CNN has been used for the recognition of a lot of outdoor objects such as buildings, potholes, and cars but with little attention to the recognition of uncovered gutters and bollards, typically found in urban areas and higher institution environments of most developing countries. Hence, a CNN-based object recognition system for uncovered gutters and bollards, with high accuracy and low time complexity, was developed in this research. This can be used to aid outdoor navigation for the visually impaired. The images of uncovered gutters and bollards were captured locally with a high-resolution camera. The datasets were pre-processed by resizing the images and annotations carried out to generate the images’ textual equivalent as well as define specific object boundaries. CNN was applied for feature extraction and recognition with two convolutional layers, two pooling layers, and a fully connected layer. The system implementation was done with Python programming language, OpenCV libraries, and Yolov4 as the CNN version with a percentage split experimental evaluation methodology. Results from experiments on the uncovered gutter dataset gave accuracy and average computational testing time of 80% and 0.4 s, respectively.  Similarly, the bollards dataset with multiple bollards per image gave accuracy and average computational testing time of 72% and 0.47 s, respectively. The output of this research will be useful for outdoor navigation of the visually impaired when integrated into appropriate electronic hardware.

PaperID: AJERD0501-14; Pages: 155-165

Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) Investigation in Ibusa and Environs, Nigeria

Author(s):Patricia Nneka ONWUACHI-IHEAGWARA, Ifeanyi MADUKA, Iheagwara Benedict IFEANYICHUKWU, Eyenubo Jonathan OGHENAKPOBO, Otitigbe FELIX

Abstract: This work evaluated the groundwater potentials of Ibusa, and the environ towns using Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES). VES presents a robust, inexpensive means to alleviate the chronic water supply problem associated with these areas. VES investigations was carried out in 4 locations in 2 states in Southern Nigeria; namely, Ibusa, Asaba, Ugbolu village in Northern Delta State and Onitsha in South-western Anambra State. The VES was completed using the Schlumberger array configuration with (16) sixteen vertical electrical soundings in Ibusa; (14) fourteen vertical electrical soundings in Asaba; (13) thirteen vertical electrical soundings in Ugbolu village and (11) eleven vertical electrical soundings in Onitsha. The results from the analysis of the field data were interpreted using computer software to yield information on the nature of the geoelectric layers and the aquiferous layers in the area of study. The survey highlights the role of topography on availability of water; Ibusa is a cliff.  Its topograpghy and consequent lower water table further complicates the availability of water and the supply problem. The investigations showcase the importance of these factors in any efficient construction of reliable boreholes which aims to harness the optimal potentials from prolific aquifers.