Volume 5 Issue 2

PaperID: AJERD0502-01; Pages: 1-10

Optimization of Diesel-Like Fuel Production from Spent Lubricating Oil Using Adsorbent Treatment

Author(s): Adamu Ibrahim ADAMU, Saidat Olanipekun GIWA, Usman Aliyu EL-NAFATY

Abstract: This research was aimed at optimizing an adsorption process used to treat spent engine oil to obtain a product that has properties similar to fresh diesel. In order to achieve this, some kaolin clay was obtained locally and made to undergo some pretreatment steps prior to sulphuric acid activation. Also, the spent engine oil used for the study was pretreated through filtration, acid/base neutralization and drying before the main treatment step. Thereafter, the face centered central composite method of response surface methodology was employed to generate thirteen runs with activated clay dosage and adsorption time as independent factors and three physical properties of the treated oil (density, flash point and viscosity) as the responses. Accordingly, adsorption experiments were carried out and the treated oil was analysed to obtain the aforementioned dependent variables. Regression analyses were carried out to obtain models that would represent the relationship between the independent variables and each of the responses. Results obtained showed that the predictors-density, viscosity and flash point data were best represented by linear, two-factor interaction and quadratic models respectively, based on their p-values which was less than 5% on 95% confidence level. Also, the coefficient of determination value for all the response was fairly close to unity. In addition, analysis of variance results showed that adsorption time and/or adsorbent dosage significantly affected the treatment process as p-value of factorial terms in all the models were significant. Density model being affected by adsorbent dosage alone can be attributed to mass transfer between the adsorbent and the adsorbate. The treated oil with best physical properties (840 kg/m3, 76 oC and 5.5 mPa.s of density, flash point and viscosity respectively) was achieved experimentally at 10 wt% adsorbent dosage and 60 min adsorption time. This optimum result was close to predicted one obtained as 842.436 kg/m3, 76.3818 oC and 5.4785 mPa.s at 9.86 wt% and 59.76 min from the numerical optimization. The optimum results revealed that the recycled spent oil has properties that are similar to diesel. Since the best properties obtained are within the standard values for diesel oil, the recycled oil can be blended with fresh diesel. The use of treated oil in diesel engine is very promising but further work needs to be done to ensure thermodynamic stability of the oil.

PaperID: AJERD0502-02; Pages: 11-18

Development of a Fingerprint-Inspired Hostel Access Control

Author(s): Oluwagbemiga Omotayo SHOEWU, Lateef Adesola AKINYEMI, Quadri Ademola MUMUNI, Abiodun Afis AJASA, Comfort Oluwaseyi FOLORUNSO, and Ruth YAKUBU

Abstract: Access control (AC) is the process of selectively restricting access to a location or resources up until authorization is obtained. Theft, kidnapping, and murder are all on the rise in Nigeria due to the growing issues with property and life insecurity. Additionally, burgling, thefts, rapes, and other crimes involving forced or covert entry into the dorms for students have crept onto the campus as a result of the facility’s open access. A fingerprint reader can be used as an efficient authentication access control to limit illegal access to hostel environments considering these threats. This becomes crucial as practically all students attend lectures, while the poor ones or even strangers break into their dorms and steal their belongings, including money, jewels, and expensive devices. In this study, we used a discretionary access control model and a single layer access control component (a fingerprint sensor) to design a digitalized biometric hostel access control system using Bluetooth remote data logging that automatically records hostel attendance. This system will replace the conventional method of manually checking in and out of the hostels.

PaperID: AJERD0502-03; Pages: 19-27

Optimal placement of Switches and Reconfiguration of Power Distribution Network for Power Quality Enhancement

Author(s): Modu ABBA GANA, Adam BUKAR, Ibrahim MUSTAPHA

Abstract: Reconfiguration of an electrical power radial distribution network is aimed at finding a radial operating structure with minimum system active power loss and enhanced system voltage profile via reducing the active power losses whilst satisfying operating constraints. In this paper, an efficient approach to solving the problem of reconfiguration considering active power loss, total voltage deviation for a typical Nigerian distribution network is presented. The method developed is based on Modified Particle Swarm optimization to determine the optimal location of tie and sectionalizing switches, with a view to yielding an optimal performance for the network. The reconfiguration model was implemented using MATLAB R2019a and ETAP simulation environments. The effectiveness and validity of the proposed model was tested on a 69 Bus Ran distribution network in Bauchi state, Nigeria. The results showed that scenario case four was the best configuration with a reduction of 8.86% in active power loss as compared to the initial configuration. Out of the 24 buses with 300 customers isolated, 19 buses with 210 customers were restored. The bus voltages are all within the specified tolerance.

PaperID: AJERD0502-04; Pages: 28-34

Determination of Load-Haul Equipment Match Factor at Ashaka Cement Quarry, Gombe State, Nigeria

Author(s): Abayomi Paul AKINOLA, Yahuza Musa AHMED

Abstract: This research aims to determine the match factor at the Ashaka cement quarry. The match factor of the equipment was determined by first taking into consideration the total number of hauling equipment, and the cycle time for each piece of equipment was determined. It was observed that the type of hauling fleet used is a homogenous loader and heterogeneous trucking fleet. A model by Burt was used to determine the match between the equipment. The match factor considering the As-Is cycle time data was 1.16. From the match determined, it is observed that the match factor was more significant than 1.0; therefore, it is said to be over trucked. From the As-Is result, Assuming the Volvo has a perfect match factor, i.e., 0.61 and the match factor of the CAT truck is unknown x,x=0.39 to get a perfect match. Also, assuming the CAT has a perfect match factor, i.e., 0.55 and the match for Volvo is unknown, y,y=0.45. It can be observed that the match factor can be optimized, and a better match can be obtained, dead times can be reduced to their minimum, and thus increase in productivity can be obtained.

PaperID: AJERD0502-05; Pages: 35-44

Thermal and Hygrothermal Properties of Porous Building Blocks Produced with Crushed-Glass Blended Cement

Author(s): Ola KAMIYO

Abstract: The quest to enhance physical properties, increase varieties and reduce costs of the material constituents of sandcrete blocks have led to the substitution of traditional materials with alternative admixtures. One of such admixtures is glass particulates as researched in this work. This work examined the effects of a partial replacement of cement with crushed glass on the thermal and hygrothermal characteristics of hollow sand-cement-glass blocks produced with 1:6 and 1:8 sand-cement mix ratio. The substitution of crushed glass by volume of the cement was varied in steps of 5% to a maximum of 25%. The results revealed that, for both mix ratios, as percentage of crushed glass substituted increased, there was an increase in the density, water absorption coefficient, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, thermal conductance, thermal admittance and the heat transfer rate. But the porosity, specific heat capacity, thermal resistivity, thermal effusivity, thermal resistance and thermal insulance decreased as the crushed glass content increased. The overall thermal effect of the crushed glass partially replacing cement in a porous building block is that it loses the thermal insulating advantage leading to occupants’ discomfort year-round. Therefore, it should be used with caution; for partitioned walls rather than as external walls and that not more than 5%.

PaperID: AJERD0502-06; Pages: 45-56

Development and Optimization of a Hand Push Mechanical Rotary Hoe

Author(s): Tolulope Olorunsola AJAYI, Olufemi Adeyemi ADETOLA

Abstract: Soil cultivation is the process of breaking up the top layer of soil to improve soil preparation for a new or existing crop. Therefore, this research aimed to develop a hand push rotary hoe for soil cultivation. The machine was designed based on standard considerations for machine design and the fabrication was carried out using locally available materials. Also, the performance evaluation of the rotary hoe was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, the Federal University of Technology Akure to determine the effects of operation parameters (Clearance and machine speed) on the performance of the rotary hoe which includes its ability to remove the weed and manipulate the soil. The result shows that the highest weeding efficiency of the rotary hoe was 90%, while the maximum weeding capacity of the rotary hoe was 126.9 m2/h. The developed model shows that the combination of machine speed and clearance can significantly predict about 90.13% 85.05% and 90.13% change in the weeding efficiency, weeding capacity, and uncleared weed respectively. The optimal performance of the rotary hoe was 92.18%, 7.82%, and 93.23 m2/h for weeding efficiency, uncleared weed, and weeding capacity respectively with the highest desirability of 89.3% when operated at a machine speed of 2420 rpm and 0 mm clearance.

PaperID: AJERD0502-07; Pages: 57-61

Investigation of Ultimate and Proximate Properties of Cashew Pulp Substrate in South West Nigeria for Bioethanol Production

Author(s): Adeyemi Mathew IGE, Ademola Ezra ADELEKE, Ajani Olatunde OYELARAN

Abstract: Cashew apples are used in the industry for the production of juice, ethanol, wine and syrup but the pulp has been underutilized, this reason triggered the ultimate and proximate analysis properties of cashew pulp to be investigated for the production of alternative fuel mainly bioethanol. The cashew pulp powdered substrate was prepared by extracting the juice, dry (sun dried and air dried) and pulverized for easy properties analysis. The ultimate analysis properties for the sun dried and air dried substrate samples were done by Flash Smart V CHNS Elementar analyzer and the result obtained as followed; 1.14 and 1.12% for sulphur, 1.57 and 1.49% for hydrogen, 39.90 and 39.98% for oxygen, 2.53 and 2.72% for nitrogen and finally 54.86 and 54.69% for carbon respectively, while the proximate analysis properties for the sun dried and air-dried substrates obtained as; 13.22 and 9.78% for moisture, 2.04 and 2.58% for volatile matter, 1.75 and 2.52% for Ash and lastly 82.99 and 85.12% for fixed carbon. The results of the conducted study were compared with other biofuel reported in the past literature and the results appears to correlate with the ultimate analysis range of the other feedstocks which are used as a raw material for biofuel. With the results obtained from proximate and ultimate properties in each substrate indicate that cashew pulp can be used as a feedstock for the production of biofuel and this will increase the feedstocks data bank.

PaperID: AJERD0502-08; Pages: 62-73

Optimization of Linear Alkyl Benzene Yield through Modelling and Simulation

Author(s): Ahmed Mohammed INUWA, Saidat Olanipekun GIWA, Atuman Samaila JOEL

Abstract: Demand for consumer products such as detergents, soap, shampoos, cosmetics and emulsifiers continues to rise due to the increase in population. As a result of this, the production of linear alkyl benzene, a key ingredient in detergent and cosmetics production has increased. The need for the specification of linear alkyl benzene is essential in the production of the best quality detergent. A side reaction is one of the major problems in detergent production that occurs during paraffin conversion to olefins in the linear alkyl benzene (LAB) production process which leads to undesirable olefins. Also, instability of the thermodynamic variables such as temperature, pressure and flow rate are the factors that affect the equipment performance for LAB production. This research was aimed at improving the product yield of the linear alkyl benzene plant of Kaduna Refining and Petrochemical Company (KRPC) using Aspen HYSYS®. The results obtained from the modelling and simulation of the LAB production process using ASPEN HYSYS® revealed that the developed model was successful as the model was able to converge when simulated with all the selected fluid packages. However, Peng-Robison as a fluid package gave a better (compared to other property models used) LAB yield of 3800 kg/h, which, is very close to the actual LAB plant yield of 3788 kg/h at the same feed rate. Moreover, the linear model equation developed for the LAB yield using Design-Expert 13.0.0 may be very useful in representing the behaviour of the KRPC LAB plant as the model was statistically significant and had a high value of the coefficient of determination (0.7075). The R-squared value implied that the first-order polynomial model adequately represented the experimental data. Furthermore, the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) numerical optimization result was able to show a remarkable improvement in LAB yield value up to 2.10%, while with the particle swarm optimization method 1.85% improvement was recorded at the optimum operating PACOL (paraffin conversion to olefins) temperature, pressure and DETAL (detergent alkylation) temperature, pressure of 500 ℃, 3.5 kg/cm2.g and 280 ℃, 4.5 kg/cm2.g for particle swarm and 457.349 ℃, 2.320 kg/cm2.g , 275.692 ℃  and 2.815 kg/cm2.g for RSM respectively. It can be said that the process variables considered in the current study gave better yield of the LAB product of KRPC LAB plant section.