Volume 2 Issue 2

PaperID: AJERD0202-01; Pages: _-__

Effectiveness of Palm Kernel Shell Ash Concrete Reinforced with Steel Fibres

Author(s): Kayode Oluwafemi OLOWE, John WASIU, Victor Babafemi ADEBAYO

Abstract: The steadily increasing cost of cement has made construction very expensive in many countries of the world, coupled with the adverse effect of cement production on the environment. To solve these problems, studies have been made on various materials like Pozzolans which could be used as partial replacement for cement in concrete production. Palm kernel shell ash (PKSA) is the ash produced from burning of palm kernel shell thus, PKSA is used as partial replacement of cement in this study. This study investigated the effect of palm kernel shell ash (PKSA) as a partial replacement with ordinary Portland cement in high strength palm kernel shell ash concrete reinforced with steel fibres. The properties studied includes workability of fresh concrete, compressive strength, flexural tensile strength, and water absorption for hardened concrete. PKSA contents in mixes ranged between 0% and 50% by weight of cement and Steel fibre of 0.75% by volume of concrete was maintained in all mixes containing steel fibre. The use of palm kernel shell ash (PKSA) has advantages like; reduction in cost of concrete, solving environmental pollution problems as well as reduced the number of landfill areas required for disposing the PKSA. The results indicate that the inclusion of steel fibre into concrete contained ordinary Portland cement concrete or PKSA, improved the tensile strength properties. Further, it was observed that increase in percentage of PKSA led to a corresponding reduction in both flexural and compressive strength when compared with control concrete. Since the strength reduced with further addition of PKSA from 25%, it is recommended that optimum replacement level of ordinary Portland cement by Palm kernel shell ash is 25% for good compressive and tensile properties.


PaperID: AJERD0202-02; Pages: __-__

Socio-Economic Impact of Granite Stone Quarry Engagement on Workers’ livelihood In Ondo And Edo States, Nigeria

Author(s): M. M. Melodi and O. B. Ogunyemi

Abstract: Mining operations produce unequal socio-economic effects on its workers. This study focused on the socio-economic impact of granite stone engagement on workers’ livelihood in Nigeria; its objectives include examining the socio-economic benefits and demerits of granite stone quarry engagement on workers’ livelihood, and evaluating mitigation measure used to curb negative impacts. One hundred structured questionnaires were administered to individual granite stone quarry worker, data from 92 questionnaires retrieved were analyzed. The study revealed that improved standard of living is a regular benefit obtained by workers from engagement, while quarry workers seldom have access to loan facilities, medical facilities, and provision of basic infrastructure. Interest (37.1%) was the major motivation to work by the respondents, as quarry jobs are considered reliable and secure (95.6%). A proportion of 60.8% of the respondents earn N60,000 or less per month accounting for 80.4% of the respondents whose household income come from the granite stone engagement. A significant socio-economic impact of quarry was seen in improvement in social status; 13.1% and 50.0% of the respondents were about an average status before and after picking up quarry job respectively. Most severe negative socio-economic impact was conflict with residents of nearby communities (60.8%), which is largely being curbed by reviewing quarry operational methods. In conclusion, granite stone quarries provide significant socio-economic benefits, especially in improving workers’ social class, communal issues which seldom arise were been curbed through reviewing of operational methods by granite stone quarries.


PaperID: AJERD0202-03; Pages: __-__

Pyrolysis of Different Fruit Peel Waste Via a Thermodynamic Model

Author(s): Adewale George ADENIYI, Kevin Shegun OTOIKHIAN, Joshua O. IGHALO, Ishaq Alhassan MOHAMMED

Abstract: Agriculture is an important sector in most African countries. Large amounts of quantities of residues are produced during the processing and consumption of agricultural products. The feedstock that was studied are banana (Musa spp.) peels, orange (Citrus sinensis) peels, sweet lime (Citrus limetta) peels, lemon (Citrus limon) peels and jackfruit (Artocarpus heterphyllus) peel. ASPEN plus V8.8 was used to develop a steady-state model for the pyrolysis of the different fruit peel wastes. The pyrolysis simulation was done at 500oC and atmospheric pressure. From the results obtained, though product yields were similar for all fruit peel feedstock; orange and lemon peels were found to be the best for oil production while jackfruit peel gave the least oil. Consequently, jackfruit peel gave the highest yield of char while orange and lemon peels gave the lowest yield. Banana and sweet lime peels gave intermediate results for both oil and char yield.


PaperID: AJERD0202-04; Pages: __-__

Extraction of Palmitic Acid from Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) Stalk Residue

Author(s): Adewale George ADENIYI, Kevin Shegun OTOIKHIAN, Damilola Victoria ONIFADE, Joshua O IGHALO, Mustapha. A RAJI, Samuel Oluwasegun OLONADE

Abstract: This work is aimed at selective solvent extraction of palmitic acid from Plantain Stalk Residues (PSR). Plantain stalk obtained from the waste stream of a local market was used in this study. The stalk was grated and the extract obtained during the grating process was oven dried at a temperature of 70oC. The residue referred to as NT was characterized using Gas chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) to ascertain the presence of fatty acids with much preference given to palmitic acid. This residue was dissolved in four solvents (water, ethanol, hexane and acetone) and also oven dried at 70oC. The dried residues were analyzed for their functional groups and inorganic content using studied using Fourier Transform Infrared FTIR, and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF). These characterizations were conducted to determine the suitable solvent for a greater yield of palmitic acid. GCMS result shows that the percentage of palmitic acid expressed as percentage fraction of total fatty acids present in the plantain stalk was 14.4%. FTIR analysis results gave acetone as the most suitable solvent in obtaining a better yield of palmitic acid from PSR.  Palmitic acid extracted from plantain stalk residue is suitable for applications in pharmaceuticals, food additives and soap making due to the high composition of Calcium, Silicon and Potassium respectively.


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