PaperID: AJERD0202_01; Pages: 1-9
Effectiveness of Palm Kernel Shell Ash Concrete Reinforced with Steel Fibres
Author(s): Kayode Oluwafemi OLOWE, John WASIU, Victor Babafemi ADEBAYO
Abstract: The steadily increasing cost of cement has made construction very expensive in many countries of the world, coupled with the adverse effect of cement production on the environment. To solve these problems, studies have been made on various materials like Pozzolans which could be used as partial replacement for cement in concrete production. Palm kernel shell ash (PKSA) is the ash produced from burning of palm kernel shell thus, PKSA is used as partial replacement of cement in this study. This study investigated the effect of palm kernel shell ash (PKSA) as a partial replacement with ordinary Portland cement in high strength palm kernel shell ash concrete reinforced with steel fibres. The properties studied includes workability of fresh concrete, compressive strength, flexural tensile strength, and water absorption for hardened concrete. PKSA contents in mixes ranged between 0% and 50% by weight of cement and Steel fibre of 0.75% by volume of concrete was maintained in all mixes containing steel fibre. The use of palm kernel shell ash (PKSA) has advantages like; reduction in cost of concrete, solving environmental pollution problems as well as reduced the number of landfill areas required for disposing the PKSA. The results indicate that the inclusion of steel fibre into concrete contained ordinary Portland cement concrete or PKSA, improved the tensile strength properties. Further, it was observed that increase in percentage of PKSA led to a corresponding reduction in both flexural and compressive strength when compared with control concrete. Since the strength reduced with further addition of PKSA from 25%, it is recommended that optimum replacement level of ordinary Portland cement by Palm kernel shell ash is 25% for good compressive and tensile properties.
PaperID: AJERD0202_02; Pages: 10-15
Socio-Economic Impact of Granite Stone Quarry Engagement on Workers’ Livelihood in Ondo and Edo States, Nigeria
Author(s): Mbuyi Mata MELODI, Olaoluwa Bidemi OGUNYEMI
Abstract: Mining operations produce unequal socio-economic effects on its workers. This study focused on the socio-economic impact of granite stone engagement on workers’ livelihood in Nigeria; its objectives include examining the socio-economic benefits and demerits of granite stone quarry engagement on workers’ livelihood, and evaluating mitigation measure used to curb negative impacts. One hundred structured questionnaires were administered to individual granite stone quarry worker, data from 92 questionnaires retrieved were analyzed. The study revealed that improved standard of living is a regular benefit obtained by workers from engagement, while quarry workers seldom have access to loan facilities, medical facilities, and provision of basic infrastructure. Interest (37.1%) was the major motivation to work by the respondents, as quarry jobs are considered reliable and secure (95.6%). A proportion of 60.8% of the respondents earn N60,000 or less per month accounting for 80.4% of the respondents whose household income come from the granite stone engagement. A significant socio-economic impact of quarry was seen in improvement in social status; 13.1% and 50.0% of the respondents were about an average status before and after picking up quarry job respectively. Most severe negative socio-economic impact was conflict with residents of nearby communities (60.8%), which is largely being curbed by reviewing quarry operational methods. In conclusion, granite stone quarries provide significant socio-economic benefits, especially in improving workers’ social class, communal issues, which seldom arise, were been curbed through reviewing of operational methods by granite stone quarries.
PaperID: AJERD0202_03; Pages: 16-24
Pyrolysis of Different Fruit Peel Waste Via a Thermodynamic Model
Author(s): Adewale George ADENIYI, Kevin Shegun OTOIKHIAN, Joshua O. IGHALO, Ishaq Alhassan MOHAMMED
Abstract: Agriculture is an important sector in most African countries. Large amounts of quantities of residues are produced during the processing and consumption of agricultural products. The feedstock that was studied are banana (Musa spp.) peels, orange (Citrus sinensis) peels, sweet lime (Citrus limetta) peels, lemon (Citrus limon) peels and jackfruit (Artocarpus heterphyllus) peel. ASPEN plus V8.8 was used to develop a steady-state model for the pyrolysis of the different fruit peel wastes. The pyrolysis simulation was done at 500oC and atmospheric pressure. From the results obtained, though product yields were similar for all fruit peel feedstock; orange and lemon peels were found to be the best for oil production while jackfruit peel gave the least oil. Consequently, jackfruit peel gave the highest yield of char while orange and lemon peels gave the lowest yield. Banana and sweet lime peels gave intermediate results for both oil and char yield.
PaperID: AJERD0202_04; Pages: 25-31
Extraction of Palmitic Acid from Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) Stalk Residue
Author(s): Adewale George ADENIYI, Kevin Shegun OTOIKHIAN, Damilola Victoria ONIFADE, Joshua O IGHALO, Mustapha A RAJI, Samuel Oluwasegun OLONADE
Abstract: This work is aimed at selective solvent extraction of palmitic acid from Plantain Stalk Residues (PSR). Plantain stalk obtained from the waste stream of a local market was used in this study. The stalk was grated and the extract obtained during the grating process was oven dried at a temperature of 70oC. The residue referred to as NT was characterized using Gas chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) to ascertain the presence of fatty acids with much preference given to palmitic acid. This residue was dissolved in four solvents (water, ethanol, hexane and acetone) and also oven dried at 70oC. The dried residues were analyzed for their functional groups and inorganic content using studied using Fourier Transform Infrared FTIR, and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF). These characterizations were conducted to determine the suitable solvent for a greater yield of palmitic acid. GCMS result shows that the percentage of palmitic acid expressed as percentage fraction of total fatty acids present in the plantain stalk was 14.4%. FTIR analysis results gave acetone as the most suitable solvent in obtaining a better yield of palmitic acid from PSR. Palmitic acid extracted from plantain stalk residue is suitable for applications in pharmaceuticals, food additives and soap making due to the high composition of Calcium, Silicon and Potassium respectively.
PaperID: AJERD0202_05; Pages: 32-42
Investigation of the Mechanical Properties of Squeeze Cast Aluminium Alloy (Al-Si Alloy)
Author(s): Toyin Julliet ALOZIE, Babawuya ALKALI, Sadiq Sius LAWAL, Jibril ABUBAKAR, Semiu Adedeji YUSUF, Adamu Ma’ali ABDULLAHI
Abstract: Scrap aluminium alloy are littered everywhere because poor recycling outlets. These Al-alloy could recycled to other useful products such as household accessory. These scraps are collected from used aluminium components such as knocked engine blocks, shipping containers, etc. Products sand casting shown high percentage of different types of defects, therefore squeeze casting method was attempted. Scraped Al-alloys were collected and casted using squeeze casting method, and the mechanical properties and microstructures of the casts were determined by varying the cast conditions such as pouring temperature, pouring time and the applied pressure to the mould. The results obtained for tensile test, hardness test, impact shows that the specimen P3 (700 oC, 10 min and 20 Mpa) had improved properties of 214 MN/mm2, 77.06 BHN and 16.06 J respectively than that of sand cast Al-alloy.
PaperID: AJERD0202_06; Pages: 43-49
An Assessment of the Performance of IPsec Internet Key Exchange in Aggressive and Main Mode
Author(s): Emmanuel Adewale ADEDOKUN, Mohammed Bashir MUA’ZU, Alice Ochanya LAWRENCE, Habeeb Bello SALAU
Abstract: One of the most widely accepted security schemes in virtual private networks (VPN) is the Internet protocol security (IPsec) tunnelling protocol. The choice of modes for the implementation of this scheme depends on application requirements. As crucial as this may be, oftentimes the specific mode in which this IPsec Internet key exchange (IKE) is implemented is not being specified. In this paper, we present a framework for the implementation of IPsec IKE in both aggressive and main mode towards appreciating the necessity for specifying the mode of implementation by researchers and the implications for doing so. IPsec IKE tunnelling protocol was configured in aggressive and main modes using encapsulating security protocol (ESP) protocol in tunnel mode in a site to site VPN architecture. The network was designed and implemented in graphical network simulator 3 (GNS3) using Cisco devices. The network was analysed using Wireshark network analyser. The performance of both networks was measured using throughput and latency. Experimental results showed an improved average performance of about 0.5% and 11% recorded by the aggressive mode over the main mode in terms of throughput and latency respectively. Though, the aggressive mode performs better, it may not always be suitable for all systems, however, it is best suited for any message that does not require encrypted authentication and could thus be configured for site to site implementations when optimal security is not a major concern. Our findings attest to the fact that there is need to specify the mode of implementation of any IPsec IKE tunnelling protocol and the associated implication, thereby, avoiding erroneous decisions by network engineers.
PaperID: AJERD0202_07; Pages: 50-56
Vehicle Tracking and Accident Alert System Using GPS and GSM Modules
Author(s): Abdulwaheed MUSA, Sherif MASHOOD, Samuel PATRICK, Abdullahi AHMED
Abstract: Vehicle tracking systems are popular among people as a retrieval device and theft prevention. In this work, Global Positioning System (GPS) and Global System for Mobile (GSM) technologies have been used to design and construct a vehicle tracking and accident alert system (VTAA). The work integrates GPS receiver, microcontroller GSM module and push button for accident alert activation. The GPS module receives the coordinate of the point at which the system is located. The GSM module acts as a transmitter and receiver of data which is controlled by the user using command interface. The hardware component comprises of the push button, the microcontroller, SIM900, GPS receiver (sensor) and its integration with GSM module. The software component entails programming the microcontroller (ATMEGA328) with the source code, the Google map Application Programming Interfaces (APIs), the GSM message command, and integration with the GSM module. The system is controlled using a centralized interface. Whenever there is an accident, an alert message is sent automatically to the central dispatch server using the automatic alert system. The message is sent through the GSM module and the location of the accident is detected with the help of the GPS module. The result of the work which is user-friendly and reliable shows high sensitivity and accuracy.
PaperID: AJERD0202_08; Pages: 57-67
Performance of Sugar Syrup and Corn Starch Binders on Properties of Thin Wall Ductile Iron
Author(s): Ezenwanyi Fidelia OCHULOR, Eugenia Obiageli OBIDIEGWU, Adeyemi Ayomide ADEDUGBE
Abstract: Binders are important moulding sand constituents as they impact strength by creation of bonds in the sand mix. Production of Thin Wall Ductile Iron (TWDI) casting presents macroscopic and microscopic challenges using bentonite bonded moulding sand. In this study, moulding sand properties such as green, dry compressive strength and permeability of bentonite, corn starch and sugar syrup bonded silica sand were evaluated using various binder/sand formulations (6%, 9%, and 12%). TWDI samples of 3 mm thickness were then cast using best dry compression strength as the criteria for each binder type. Cast samples were subjected to macroscopic, microscopic and Vickers hardness analysis. Results showed that the sugar syrup bonded sand gave superior dry compression strength property of 650 KN/m2 at 6 % addition, as compared to corn starch and bentonite bonded sand which were 470 KN/m2 at 6 % addition and 445KN/m2 at 12% addition respectively. Cast TWDI samples showed nodularity and nodule counts of 96.2%, 611 nodules/mm2, 81.5%, 357 nodules/mm2 and 94.1%, 568 nodules/mm2 for samples cast using sugar syrup, corn starch and bentonite bonded sand respectively. Hardness value of 288 HV, 283 HV and 274 HV were observed for samples using corn starch, sugar syrup and bentonite bonded sand respectively. Dimensional inconsistency was observed in samples cast using all binder types with those cast using bentonite and corn starch bonded sand showing the highest thickness difference due to mould swelling from metallostatic pressure. This study has shown that adopting sugar syrup as an alternative binder for production of TWDI casting should be encouraged as both macroscopic and microscopic properties of cast TWDIs samples were greatly improved.
PaperID: AJERD0202_09; Pages: 68-77
Chloride Ion Penetration Performance of Biogenic Pozzolanic Cement Concrete
Author(s): Catherine Mayowa IKUMAPAYI, Chinwuba ARUM, Philips Gbenro OGUNTUNDE
Abstract: Concrete is a pervious material whose durability depends mostly on the constituent materials. Penetration of water, oxygen, CO2 and aggressive ions, such as chlorides and sulphates into reinforced concrete can cause the passive layer on reinforcing steel to break down thereby making it susceptible to corrosion. Use of pozzolanic materials reduces the permeability of concrete due to conversion of calcium hydroxide into calcium silicate hydrates which in turn increases the concrete durability in terms of corrosion resistance. In this work, permeability of chloride ion was determined for various mixes of concrete specimens (50 mm thick and 100 mm in diameter) when the cement content was partially replaced with some selected biogenic pozzolans using Rapid Migration Test. The result shows that groundnut shell ash, locust bean pod ash, sugarcane bagasse ash and bamboo leaf ash can be effectively used in partial replacement of OPC in concrete up to 12% with added advantage of better durability in terms of resistance to chloride ion penetration.
PaperID: AJERD0202_10; Pages: 78-84
On the Radiation Characteristics of End-Fire Arrays of Equally Spaced Elements
Author(s): Akeem Abimbola RAJI
Abstract: This paper investigated impact of inter- element spacings on the radiation behaviours of end fire arrays of linear elements. By using pattern multiplication concept to evaluate the electric field radiated by the antenna when excited with sinusoidal current distribution, it was found that, the beam-widths of the main lobe radiations in all the arrays employed as candidates for investigation, reduced as the number of element in the array increased which suggested better directivity. However, improvement in the directivity was accompanied by appearance of undesirable small minor lobe radiation. In addition, It was observed that, the radiation patterns exhibited remarkable unidirectional main lobe radiation when the spacing between array was , while at the spacing of , the antenna produced main or primary lobe radiations in opposite direction. At higher spacings however, the beam pattern further degenerates into three main lobes with one along the array axis while other lobes are normal to the array axis. Furthermore, it was discovered that the array factor patterns and radiated electric field patterns of the antenna displayed characteristics that were largely similar. It was also revealed through the study that, the antenna exhibited varying behaviour at different spacings and the choice of the antenna’s spacing plays greater role in the performance behaviour exhibited by the antenna.
PaperID: AJERD0202_11; Pages: 85-94
Assessment of Physio-Chemical Properties of Cement Slurry for Offshore Well Completion
Author(s): Adebayo Tajudeen OGUNYEMI, Oluwaseun Samuel OGUNGBEMI, Christiana Bola OJO
Abstract: This study is aimed at examining physio-chemical properties of some local cements that may be suitable for well bore completion. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and British Standards Institution (BSI) are used as standards for this study. Four major cement samples using various physio-chemical methods were analysed; three were locally sourced and one imported (Class-G Cement). Results of all the analysis showed that the locally produced cements, i.e., Elephant, Eagle and Dangote cements differ in their physio-chemical properties with reference to ASTM and BSI standards. This involves testing for the chemical composition, mechanical and rheological properties of slurry of four cement samples. The results obtained from the experiments indicates that the properties (standard consistency test, compressive strength and setting time) of two of the local cements (Eagle and Dangote) are at variance with the Class G cement (which acts as control) but Elephant cement shows properties similar to the class G cement. On the other hand, all the local cement samples have similar chemical composition (CaO, Fe2O3, Al2O3, MgO, etc) with the Class G cement. Laboratory tests and simulations should be carried out repeatedly to ensure the cement slurry can withstand actual well conditions.
PaperID: AJERD0202_12; Pages: 95-101
Predicting the Unconfined Compressive Strength of Laterite-Cement Mixture Obtained from Zaria at Different Water-Cement Ratio
Author(s): Joshua OCHEPO, Abdulkadir YUSUF
Abstract: This study was carried out to predict the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of cement treated laterite soil using the ratio of water content, (Mc) and cement content, (Cc). The laterite soil samples which were obtained from Zaria in Northern Nigeria were molded with predetermined water content and treated with cement slurry. The total water content of the laterite-cement mixture was varied from the liquid limit to three times the liquid limit of the soil. The cement content used was in increment of 3, 6, 9, and 12%. The prepared samples were cured for 7, 14, and 28 days and then tested for UCS. The result shows that moisture content, cement content, curing period as well as Mc/Cc affects the UCS development of the cement treated laterite soil. UCS decreased with increasing Mc to a value of 235 kN/m2 when Mc was 2.0LL. At 12% cement content and 28 days curing period, a peak UCS value of 1675 kN/m2 was achieved. From regression analysis result, it was found that the relationship between UCS and Mc/Cc could be represented by power function with constants obtained for each curing periods. The regression model developed was used to predict the UCS of the mixture from Mc/Cc. The predicted values were compared with measured laboratory values and it was found out that the difference was generally less than 10% on the average. These results suggest that Mc/Cc can be used to predict the UCS of cement treated laterite soil obtained from Zaria in Nigeria.
PaperID: AJERD0202_13; Pages: 102-113
Effect of Fluid Types on the Performance of Heat Exchanger Base on Flow Configurations
Author(s): Taye Stephen MOGAJI, Ifeoluwa Elijah ROTIMI, Abdullahi Oyedele OLAPOJOYE
Abstract: An application software for evaluating heat exchanger performance considering four different types of flow configurations is developed in this study. Standard physical heat transfer model was devised by applying the concept of energy balance to the outlet temperature for both hot and cold fluid portion of the system. The models implemented in MATLAB R2018b was used to estimate numerically the heat exchanger performance in terms of effectiveness (ε) and heat transfer rate (Q). In all the flow configuration considered in this work, an increase in heat exchanger effectiveness is observed with increase in mass flow rate consequently, in comparison to other flow configurations such as: parallel flow, cross flow and shell and tube at n=1, the counter flow configuration gave best thermal performance with the heat exchanger effectiveness value range from 1.036 to 1.059. Among the refrigerants simulated in the selected heat exchanger system flow configuration under similar operating conditions, the heat exchanger system independently of the flow configurations with the use of methanol and ammonia yields best thermal performance with the highest value of 0.98 for methanol and 88.7 kW for ammonia in terms of effectiveness and heat transfer rate enhancement respectively. The results obtained from the numerical analyses were in good agreement with the experiments data obtained from literature with the discrepancies of the heat transfer rate and effectiveness estimated to be less than 11.63% and 1.55% respectively. It can be concluded that methanol and ammonia may act as a better substitute to the green offensive refrigerants commonly used in refrigeration system, thus helping to solve the ozone depletion potential (ODP) and global warming potential (GWP) problems regarding environmental impact issues.
PaperID: AJERD0202_14; Pages: 114-122
Design and Development of an Electrodeposition System and Application to Deposition of a Thin-Film Semiconductor Material (CdZnSeS) for Solar Cell Application
Author(s): Kazeem Adeleke MUSILIYU, Olumuyiwa Ademola ALAO, Sikiru Adesina OLANIRAN, Omololu AKIN-OJO
Abstract: Electrochemical deposition is a cheap means to produce solar cell materials compared to the clean-room deposition facilities needed for silicon solar cells. We showed that an electrodeposition system can be built cheaply in Africa using materials that are readily available and that such a system can be used to produce thin films of materials that have scientific and technological merits. In this work, two-electrode electrodeposition system is designed, fabricated and used for electrodeposition of CdZnSeS thin film on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate. Two distinguished thickness were achieved by choosing two different deposition times, 6 mins and 3 mins respectively. The optical transmittance and absorbance of the thin films are determined by Ultraviolet-Visible spectrophotometer, achieving 71% to 88% transmittance depending on the wavelength of the incident radiation. The results indicate that the sample with longer time of deposition yields higher transmittance than the one with lower deposition time, but the difference in band gaps between the two samples is not significant.
PaperID: AJERD0202_15; Pages: 123-131
Design and Construction of an Automatic Gate
Author(s): Onyinye Florence IKPEZE, Emmanuel Chidiebere UWAEZUOKE, Bola-Matanmi SAMIAT, Kola Michael KAREEM
Abstract: Automatic gate is one of the most useful things to use in companies, industries, colleges and schools. Automatic gates are important and very useful because it helps save time, reduces the human force applied to the opening and closing of the manual gate which saves energy and also saves gate operators from health hazards caused by exposing themselves to harsh weather conditions in the course of operating the manual gate. The design and construction of the automatic gate sited at the main entrance of Afe Babalola University Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria was achieved by designing the gate, control unit and the power supply unit. The gate was designed, constructed and mounted, the control unit and power supply unit were also designed and implemented. These various units were incorporated and implemented. The automatic gate was tested for speed and efficiency and from the generated results, it can be said that the gate is 90% efficient. The automatic gate senses an object either human or vehicular within a distance of 0.42m to 0.52m and operates at a speed of 0.186m/s. The automatic gate has helped reduce the stress of opening and closing the gate where buttons are pressed rather than the usual manpower used in operating the gate. This has made life easier and more comfortable. The gate can be further improved my adding a scanning device to perform the searching operation done by the securities thereby making their work easier and more comfortable.