Developing Sustainable Renewable Energy for Rural Dwellers’ Energy Sufficiency
Authors: Olawale Olaniyi Emmanuel AJIBOLA, Oye IBIDAPO-OBE, Oluwaseyi Jessy BALOGUN
Abstract: The issues connected with the worldwide growth in energy consumption, energy conservation, and finding environmentally benign ways of energy production may arguably be the most significant challenge facing mankind in the 21st century. Government policies on rewarding economic goals have failed due to inadequate supply of energy. A strong energy sector is essential for a vibrant and competitive economy. Whilst we proceed with increasing the energy generation capacity, transmission and distribution of existing energy from traditional sources through the development of energy systems that enhance social, economic and environmental performance; it is appropriate to focus on renewable and sustainable energy forms for rural areas. In this paper, we explored various renewable and sustainable energy options, namely: solar, wind, micro hydro, fuel cells and bio fuel; with the aim of proposing an environmental friendly and cost effective option that will ultimately solve the energy crisis both in rural and urban areas in Nigeria. Our methodology is purely empirical with data drawn from a pilot project carried out on a household in Magboro community, a suburb of Lagos. The result of the work revealed that the solar system based on photovoltaic cells is a viable renewable energy solution to the perennial power failure especially to the rural populace in Nigeria. The ultimate aim of this paper is to provide the springboard for the development of an enduring energy policy in Nigeria.
Paper ID: AJERD1101-1-7 | Full Text (.pdf)
Statistical Optimization of Chitosan Extraction from Shrimp Shells Using Response Surface Methodology
Authors: Abel Adekanmi ADEYI, Adekojo Ololade OLOJE, Abdulwahab GIWA
Abstract: The determination of optimum input parameters required for chitosan extraction from shrimp shells using response surface methodology (RSM) has been carried out in this study. The chitosan was produced from the shrimp shell waste by chemical method involving demineralization, deproteinization and deacetylation. The extraction was optimized using five input variables, viz. concentration of HCl (mol%), HCl immersion time (hr), concentration of NaOH (N), deacetylation temperature (oC) and deacetylation time (hr). Central composite design methodology was used to design the experiments carried out, with the aid of Minitab version 17. Thereafter, the analysis of results and optimization of the process were accomplished using the same Minitab software. From the results obtained, it was discovered that the extraction process of chitosan from shrimp shell gave 4.883% as the yield of chitosan when the concentration of HCl, the immersion time, the concentration of NaOH, the deacetylation temperature and the deacetylation time were 8 mol%, 48 hr, 3.5 N, 60 oC, and 1.5 hr, respectively. Good correlation was found to exist between the experimental and the predicted yields of chitosan as confirmed by the validation experiment carried out and the values of the square of the correlation coefficient of the developed model, which was estimated to be 0.9433.
Paper ID: AJERD1102-8-17 | Full Text (.pdf)
A Space-Time Code Supported Model for free Space Optical Communication Channel with Gamma-Gamma Turbulence
Authors: Ojo O. ADEDAYO, Ilesanmi B. OLUWAFEMI, Ajibade ADEDAYO and Adegoke M. OGUNLADE
Abstract: Free space optical (FSO) communication has been lauded as the state of the art technique for the delivery of high speed last-mile solutions for wireless communication systems, and coherent FSO systems are at the forefront of this development as a result of the ample merits embedded in their detection technique. In this work, the FSO communication channel was modelled for two transmit lasers and any arbitrary number of photodetectors using the closed form expressions for space-time coded FSO system under Gamma-Gamma channel turbulence assumptions. By employing computer aided analytic exploration of different turbulence conditions, this work presents a detailed and extensive understanding of the FSO communication channel in readiness for the deployment of space-time codes (STC).
Paper ID: AJERD1103-18-22 | Full Text (.pdf)
Development of a Wireless Sensor Network for Monitoring an Automated Distributed Water Supply System
Authors: Moses Oluwafemi ONIBONOJE, Onyinye Florence IKPEZE, Chiamaka Chiagozie IBENEGBU
Abstract: Water control is very essential in every area of life in order to prevent wastage. Since the monitoring of water supply systems can be done locally, there is a need to also remotely monitor such systems. This study aims at monitoring the effectiveness of distributed water supply systems from a relatively long distance, to help reduce the wastage of water and fuel cost, as well as save useful time by carrying out real-time monitoring from a remote location using wireless sensor networks via a LabVIEW-designed user interface. The wireless sensor network system was developed from combinations of nodes which employ varying long-range RF modules deployed at different locations. The system is further enhanced with mesh networking capabilities to increase the communication range and overall reliability of the network. The system report the conditions of the water supply systems for different scenarios and the results are presented. The designed system is competent enough to monitor the water supply systems efficiently and can find application when monitoring water overflow in any environment.
Paper ID: AJERD1104-23-31 | Full Text (.pdf)
Assessing the Performance of Harmonic Filters for Power Quality Improvement on Industrial Load: 7-Up Industry Plc Power Network as a Case Study
Authors: Oluwaseun Ibrahim ADEBISI, Isaiah Adediji ADEJUMOBI, Rufus Akinnusimi JOKOJEJE, Olusegun Daniel ADEKOYA
Abstract: Poor power quality due to widespread use of non-linear loads such as semiconductor based devices etc. causes less productivity, reduced power efficiency and equipment malfunction and damage. Therefore, the need to address power quality problems with deserved attention. This work assessed the performance of harmonic filters for power quality improvement on industrial load using 7-Up Industry Plc power network as a case study. The theoretical analyses of filter design and harmonics were presented. The test system was modelled and simulated using MATLAB/Simulink software version R2015a. The results from simulations showed without compensation, voltage and current waveforms of the test network were distorted with total harmonic distortion (THD) for voltage and current estimated as 16.93% and 19.25% respectively. Harmonic compensation on the test system with shunt passive filter reduced VTHD and ITHD to 0.20% and 0.00% respectively. The series and shunt active filters separately used alone on the test network mitigated the VTHD and ITHD to 15.67% and 18.97% respectively for series filter and 5.50% and 11.43% respectively for shunt filter. Hybrid combination of series active filter and shunt passive filter mitigated the VTHD and ITHD to 0.20% and 0.11% respectively whereas VTHD and ITHD were respectively 0.07% and 0.43% using the hybrid combination of shunt active filter and shunt passive filter. Hence, for the test network considered in this work, shunt passive filter and hybrid combinations of series active filter and shunt passive filter and shunt active filter and shunt passive filter were the suitable mitigation solutions for harmonic distortions.
Paper ID: AJERD1105-32-48 | Full Text (.pdf)
Modelling, Simulation and Control of a Reactive Distillation Process for Biodiesel Production
Authors: Abdulwahab GIWA, Michael Ayomide OGUNWARE
Abstract: In this work, the production of biodiesel via reactive distillation process has been modelled and simulated with the aid of ChemCAD for both steady state and dynamics. Also, the control of the process has been carried out using MATLAB/Simulink. In order to achieve the aim of the work, dynamics data showing the response of biodiesel mole fraction in the column bottoms (controlled variable) to a change in reboiler duty (manipulated variable) and reflux ratio (selected disturbance variable) were extracted from the ChemCAD dynamic simulation of the developed process model and used to obtain the first-order-plus-dead-time transfer function relation between biodiesel mole fraction in the column bottoms, reboiler duty and reflux ratio with the aid of MATLAB. The open loop simulation was done by applying steps to the input variables (reboiler duty and reflux ratio). Furthermore, the set-point tracking and disturbance rejection control of the system were carried out using a PID controller tuned with Zeigler- Nichols, Cohen-Coon and trial-and-error techniques. It was observed that the controller parameters obtained by Zeigler-Nichols and Cohen-Coon tuning were not able to achieve the set-point tracking control of the system appropriately, and this necessitated the use of trial-and-error technique to obtain the controller parameters used to handle the system in the desired manner for set-point tracking of maintaining the mole fraction of biodiesel at 0.7. Nonetheless, Zeigler-Nichols and Cohen-Coon techniques were sufficient to successfully tune the controller to carry out the disturbance rejection of the process. However, it was observed that the performance of Cohen-Coon tuning technique was better than that of Zeigler-Nichols tuning technique in the disturbance rejection control simulation because it had lower Integral Square Error and lower Integral Absolute Error values. It has, thus, been discovered that biodiesel could be produced in high purity via reactive distillation process, and the system could be efficiently handled to behave as desired using PID control system.
Paper ID: AJERD1106-49-60 | Full Text (.pdf)
Optimization of an Expanded Nigeria Electricity Grid System using Economic Load Dispatch
Authors: Elutunji BURAIMOH, Temitayo Olutimi EJIDOKUN, Oladimeji Joseph AYAMOLOWO
Abstract: The objective of an economical and reliable power system is to ensure that customer’s load requirements are met at a reduced cost of generation. Economic Load Dispatch (ELD) determines the power output of each thermal power plant, which minimizes the overall cost of fuel needed to serve the entire system load. This study carried out an optimization analysis on the economical distribution of loads on the existing and expanded thermal plants. The optimization analysis was carried out by formulating ELD problem using MATLAB software packages. This was with a view of developing a dynamic load scheduling between the aforementioned, in order to reduce cost, enhance overall performance and reliability of the system. The obtained result shows it is efficient and cost-effective to operate and generate power in the expanded grid. Correspondingly, the expansion of the grid to include new thermal plants of Olorunsogo, Omotoso and Geregu eased the load stress on the old plants of Afam, Egbin, Sapele and Ughelli: thereby mitigating the effect of power transmission loss and offsetting the total cost of generation.
Paper ID: AJERD1107-61-66 | Full Text (.pdf)
Development of a Dynamic Sensor for Monitoring Tyre Pressure
Authors: Bernard Akindade ADARAMOLA, Oluwasina Lawan ROMINIYI, Simeon Ayodele BABALOLA, Chukwunonso Richard ORAKPO, Adeyemi Adegbemisipo ADEROBA
Abstract: Improperly inflated tyres contribute immensely to road accidents in Nigeria. 36% of passenger vehicles on the road are under-inflated tyre while about 20% are under-inflated. The aim of this project is to develop a dynamic sensor for regulating tyre pressure in automobiles. This design utilizes the development an embedded dynamic sensor system comprising of a sensor and display unit connected wirelessly for regulating tyre pressure. A sensor is attached to the tyre to send the tyre pressure in real time to a monitoring station located in the car’s dash board to display the tyre air pressure measurements via a communication system implementation. The dynamic sensor consists of Arduino Development Board/ Microcontroller Unit hardware, the pressure sensor, NRFL201 and a 1602 Liquid crystal Display and the firmware for code running on the hardware. The firmware is an Arduino integrated development environment (IDE) that is a cross-platform application written in the programming language Java was used on to run the hardware for the system to work hand in hand effortlessly. This project will help ensure that the tyre pressure is always within the required standard.
Paper ID: AJERD1108-67-69 | Full Text (.pdf)
Development of a Hybrid Solar-Dynamo Powered Charging System
Authors: Isaiah Adediji ADEJUMOBI, Oluwaseun Ibrahim ADEBISI, Shaeed Opeyemi MATTI
Abstract: The extension of Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) to rural and semi-urban dwellers, who are predominantly farmers, is geared towards enhancing economic growth of the rural communities. Unfortunately, majority of these rural and urban communities do not have access to basic electricity supply needed to power mobile phone chargers. An indigenous technology which uses Solar–Dynamo Power that harnesses the energies in sun and bicycle pedals to generate electricity is presented in this paper. In this work, a dynamo mounted on the rear wheel of an adult size bicycle, is actuated through pedaling the bicycle. The dynamo converts the mechanical power generated by the peddler to electrical power. The electric power produced is processed for voltage rectification and voltage regulation to charge a battery which would supply the utilities for mobile phone recharging and illumination. A 2Wpeak solar powered system was also incorporated into the design as a back up to charge the battery when the bicycle is not pedaled. The speed selection, solar power sizing and the switching mechanism are also presented. The supply circuits (rectification and regulation) and the Switching Control were implemented and simulated via Livewire and Proteus 8.0. The dynamo was modelled at different AC voltages and corresponding frequencies were obtained. The dynamo output voltage for the required regulated output of 5V (DC) and the time required were obtained. A full day test was also carried out to determine selection switch mechanisms between solar and dynamo circuits. The minimum pedaling speed for charging of the battery for the chosen size of the bicycle was also determined.
Paper ID: AJERD1109-74-82 | Full Text (.pdf)
An Approach for Enhancing an Optical Microscope with TFT Display and AV Output
Authors: Onyinye Florence IKPEZE, Emmanuel Chidiebere UWAEZUOKE, Moses Oluwafemi ONIBONOJE
Abstract: Microscopes are used in various science and engineering laboratories/fields: in Electrical/Computer Engineering for examining microchips and nanochips; in Chemical/Petroleum Engineering for observing and monitoring the chemical reactions; in Physics for optical microscopy; in Geology for studying mineral structures of rock and soil samples; in Health Sciences for studying and analysing animal or plant cells, tissues, forensic evidence; and so on. There is a need to view specimens on a broader display with a higher resolution in cases where it is to be presented to a group of persons or in a work field. This paper presents an approach to enhancing an optical microscope with images magnification efficiency. This is with the aim of using a Thin Film Transistor (TFT) Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) display with optical microscope or alternatively displaying real-time image externally on a television via the inbuilt Audio/Visual (AV) output.
Paper ID: AJERD1110-83-94 | Full Text (.pdf)
Theoretical Analysis of Transmission Parameters and Interference Issues in Power Line Communication Systems
Authors: Adedayo O. AJIBADE, Ilesanmi B. OLUWAFEMI, Adedayo O. OJO, Kehinde A. ADENIJI
Abstract: Communication over the wireless network is becoming increasingly saturated as a result of global proliferation of wireless and mobile devices. Coupled with the requirement for in-home devices and appliances to share information in real-time, powerline communication (PLC) systems are gaining rapid popularity as a cost-effective alternative to wireless and other wire communication techniques. In this work, the salient properties of PLC systems including mechanism of signal propagation, channel and noise characteristics, as well as signal interference within the PLC network are expounded. Furthermore, the effect of interference of PLC signals with signals from other existing communication channels are emphasized.
Paper ID: AJERD1111-95-99 | Full Text (.pdf)
GSM-Based Gas Leakage Detection and Alert System
Authors: Olubusola Olufunke NUGA, Kamoli Akinwale AMUSA, Ayorinde Joseph OLANIPEKUN
Abstract: In this communication, an efficient method of detecting the leakage of cooking gas and alerting people about its occurrence via the use of existing Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) infrastructure was developed. The GSM-based gas leakage alert system utilizes a gas sensor to detect leakages in the event that it occurs and then send short message to a predefined telephone number. MQ2 gas sensor, PIC 16F877A microcontroller, GSM modem and a DC stepper motor are the main hardware components employed in the development the gas leakage detection and alert system. The proposed system plays two roles in the event of gas leakage: alerting people about the leakage of gas by sending short message to the predefined telephone number and by closing of the cylinder head to prevent further leakage by using the stepper motor. The developed GSM-based gas leakage detection and alert systems is suitable for deployment in homes, laboratories and restaurants to check undesirable event of gas leakages and attendant risks.
Paper ID: AJERD1112-100-104 | Full Text (.pdf)
Evaluation of Power System Contingency Using Performance Index
Authors: Isaiah Adediji ADEJUMOBI, Oyeniyi Olubusayo OJETOLA, Olusegun Daniel ADEKOYA
Abstract: One of the acceptable techniques to reduce outage in power system is the continuous evaluation of the system contingency. This work evaluates power system contingency using the power- performance index. The direct current (DC) load flow equations were employed to evaluate the network sensitivity factors and line outage distribution factors. Hence, the orders of active power line outage violations in a given sample network were prioritized using the performance index (PI). Using the Nigerian 28-bus grid system as a case study, the contingency analysis was implemented on the MATLAB R2008a software environment by randomly introducing disturbances on generator buses 2, 21 and 28; and on line 12-14 because of their loads. The network sensitivity factors were determined and used to evaluate violations on the system transmission lines. An outage on generator bus 2 of the network resulted in power flow on line 12-14 increasing from 268.4 MW to 316.9 MW. The new power flow on the line 12-14 exceeded the power flow limit of 279.6 MW specified by 37.3MW showing violation of 11.8%. This was repeated for other introduced disturbances and the performance index determined to prioritize contingencies.
Paper ID: AJERD1113-105-114 | Full Text (.pdf)
Adopting Kurtosis for Condition Monitoring of Subsea Production System
Authors: Ndubuisi Uchechukwu OKEREKE, Yahaya Danjuma BABA, Adebayo OGUNYEMI, John Olusoji OWOLABI, Mayowa Adeoye LALA
Abstract: Subsea systems and components overtime are susceptible to failures and degradation which if not detected early could cause immense damage to the subsea architecture and result in significant revenue loss in oil and gas production. Within a typical subsea production system (such as the subsea control module), the probability of system failure is distributed in a way that allows condition monitoring techniques/algorithms to detect early malfunction before total failure occurs. This study focused on the application of Kurtosis algorithm to ascertain the probability of failure of a subsea pump device. The Kurtosis algorithm was applied to data acquired for a typical subsea pump as sourced from . The vibration data gathered was used to assess the level of degradation of the subsea pump. The subsea multiphase pump considered in the case-study operates at a pressure rating of up to 15,000 psi and a differential pressure of about 2,500 psi. Data was obtained based on vibration signals on the subsea pump and Kurtosis algorithm was used to evaluate the performance of the subsea pump. Results of this study indicated 94.3% availability of the subsea pump, highlighting that the subsea pump was functioning optimally. This study also identified that industry was geared towards deploying cloud based condition monitoring, thereby making it easy to remotely monitor offshore asset from land based control stations. This study recommended integrating Kurtosis algorithm into some of the future cloud based condition monitoring approaches, considering the robustness of the algorithm. This paper also highlighted the relevance of condition monitoring on other subsea components.
Paper ID: AJERD1114-115-123 | Full Text (.pdf)
Analysis of Propagation Models for Base Station Antenna: A Case Study of Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria
Authors: Kehinde Adetunji ADENIJI, Onyinye Florence IKPEZE, Temitayo Olutimi EJIDOKUN, Kolapo Suleiman ALLI
Abstract: Path loss analysis using key parameters and mathematical models is essential for accurate characterization of a radio channel for a coverage area. It plays a fundamental role in predicting the radio coverage, path-loss, death zone and designing of an optimized fixed and mobile network systems. This paper analysed and compared two models, Okumura and Okumura Hata on the basis of variation in antenna height and operational frequency of a base transmitting station (BTS) in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. The result obtained shows that Okumura Hata model has a better signal strength delivery to destination with a less reduced path loss variation compared to Okumura model. Even though there is significant gain of about 12dB when Okumura model parameters was varied it is not better than the signal strength Okumura Hata model will deliver to a destination.
Paper ID: AJERD1115-124-129 | Full Text (.pdf)
Effects of Groundnut Husk Ash on Lime-Stabilized Lateritic Soil
Author: Emeka Segun NNOCHIRI
Abstract: This study assesses the effects of groundnut husk ash (GHA) on lime-stabilized lateritic soil. Preliminary tests were carried out on the natural soil sample for the purposes of identification and classification. The soil sample was classified as A-7-5, hence, necessitating stabilization. The soil sample was thereafter mixed with lime at percentages of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10. These were later subjected to atterberg limit tests to get the optimum amount of lime, which was 10% because the least value of plasticity index was recorded at this state. GHA was added to the lime-treated soil sample at varying proportions of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10%. The mixes were subjected to compaction, California bearing ratio (CBR), atterberg limits and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests, in so doing, the values of the CBR and UCS increased considerably, upon the addition of lime alone to lateritic soil, both soaked and unsoaked CBR values increased from 5.5% and 9.5% to 40.70% and 50.45% and when GHA was further added soaked and unsoaked CBR values further rose from 40.70% to 49.94% and 50.45 to 65.42%. It can be concluded therefore that the GHA performs satisfactorily as a cheap complement for lime in soil stabilization.
Paper ID: AJERD1115-130-135 | Full Text (.pdf)