Volume 4 Issue 1: June 2021

PaperID: AJERD0401-01; Pages: 1-7

Design and Fabrication of Self-Navigating Automated Lawn Mower

Author(s): Olawale Olaniyi Emmanuel AJIBOLA, Sunkanmi OLAJIDE, Davidson OSUNDE

Abstract: Existing lawn cutting machines suffer from more than one of the following; high initial cost, high levels of engine noise, high running cost due to high fuel consumption rates, need for perimeter wires around the field to be trimmed and high operator’s fatigue in the long-run due to vibration, noise and other characteristics caused by different types of lawn. Hence the need for a system that can achieve the same cutting effect as the existing lawn mowers with little or no operator’s fatigue, minimized noise pollution and low running cost. In this paper we describe the design and construction of an automated lawn mower, a device that cut grass automatically with little human intervention using a linear blade driven by a robotic car which is powered by a battery that uses dual charging system, namely solar energy and AC supply. Ackermann steering is used for the robotic car in this device; it has proximity sensor which it uses to detect and avoid objects while mowing. It can be operated in semi-autonomous and full autonomous mode with minimized running cost, no health hazard on the operator and it does not have any effect on the environment. The prototype was tested and it shows lawns can be cut whilst eliminating exposure of users to unhealthy conditions.

PaperID: AJERD0401-02; Pages: 8-19

Statistical Analysis of Feeders’ Reliability Metrics of the Ugbowo 2×15 MVA, 33/11 kV Electric Power Distribution System

Author(s): France Onoabedje AKPOJEDJE, Yussuf Omorogie ABU and Benson Chukwuwike OKOH

Abstract: This paper evaluates the reliability metrics of the feeders of Ugbowo 2×15 MVA, 33/11 kV distribution network. Annual data of the daily power interruption from August 2019 to July 2020 of the feeders were collected from the network and the daily outages were computed for the monthly and yearly reliability of the feeders. The network modeled in ETAP software with the outdoor substations in composite form and the annual data collected were analyzed using the LPI technique to estimate the reliability indices of the network and also, simulations were run to assess the SPI of the network for an in-depth assessment. The annual and monthly failure rates, MTTR, MTBF, SAIFI, SAIDI, ASAI, etc. were evaluated. The results obtained from the analyses of the 11 kV feeders of the substation interpreted in Microsoft Excel showed that the availability is very poor for the period under investigation with Uselu feeder having 33.22% of power availability, FGGC feeder 30.69%, Eguaedaiken feeder 26.79% and Ugbowo feeder 23.69% in the network. The failure rate results also revealed that Ugbowo 11 kV feeder had the highest failure rate of 45.99%, followed by Eguaedaiken feeder 44.39%, FGGC feeder 43.88% and Uselu feeder 41.26%. Furthermore, the SPI of the system revealed that the yearly total outage duration (SAIDI), outage frequency (SAIFI) and percentage availability (ASAI) were 175.7504 hours, 3.3780 f/cu.yr and 97.99% which is a far cry from the international acceptable standard value (IASV) of 2.5 hours, 0.01 f/cu.yr and 99.99% respectively which showed that the power supply in the network is unreliable and unpredictable.

PaperID: AJERD0401-03; Pages: 20-30

Development of a Mixer for Polyurethane (Foam) Waste Recycling Machine


Arinola Bola AJAYI, Tosin Emmanuel FOLARIN, Habeeb Akorede MUSTAPHA, Abiodun Felix POPOOLA, Samuel Olabode AFOLABI

Abstract: A Laboratory sized polyurethane (foam) mixer was designed and fabricated for the recycling of old foams and foam wastes generated in the foam production industries during production. It was observed that the waste generated from various foam plants are so enormous and there is need to recycle them. Also, old and discarded foams are serious source of environmental concerns because they are not bio-degradable. However, most of the recycling are being carried out by big companies on a large scale because of the size and cost of recycling machineries involved. This had always excluded cottage industries from participating in recycling process thereby putting much burden on the big industries in recycling both the generated wastes and old foams. There is need to develop a small polyurethane (foam) crumbs mixing machine for recycling of foams that can be used by any industry, whether big or cottage; and that can also be used to carry out simple test of chemical quality, which would have been done with larger machines that could have led to wastage of the chemicals and time. It has been discovered that foam produced directly from this recycling process has very good properties such as resilience and hardness alongside with high `density as a result of compression and curing with steam during the recycling process as compared to those produced by the normal continuous process. This makes the foam manufactured from recycled materials in high demand in orthopaedics foams, in production of very firm mattresses designed to provide maximum support and better weight distribution to gently relieve sleeping pressure points that can cause aches and pains. These foams are also useful as industrial lagging/insulation materials in refrigeration and air conditioning systems. The mixing machine is made up of a mixing chamber which consists of the hopper and the mixing blade on a shaft; the foam crumbs mixing chamber is supported by the machine frame made of square hollow mild steel pipes. The machine was put to test after fabrication for performance evaluation and the capacity of the machine was determine for different scenarios. It was discovered during the testing that the density of the product increases with the increasing weight of the chemical due to compression and curing. The tests showed that the products from the machine was in good comparison with the ones produced by industrial machines.

PaperID: AJERD0401-04; Pages: 31-37

Effect of Number of Node on the Deflection of a Simply Supported Beam Using Finite Element Analysis

Author(s): Alkali BABAWUYA, Elkanah Bagudu SAMUEL, Kamtu Peter MU’AR, Olawale James OKEGBILE, Jiya JOSHUA, Agonga Oyinbonogha FREDRICK

Abstract: The effect of the numbers of nodes for a simply supported beam is considered under a pointed load (e.g., vehicle moving on a bridge) using the finite element method and Lagrange polynomial shape function. The deflection problem of the beam was solved analytically and compared with that of the finite element method. The number of nodes considers is 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30. The results of the analytical and finite element method show a very close agreement and have an identical profile. The error became more stable as the numbers of nodes increase, as shown on the graph, that from 30 numbers of nodes the error is very minimal and stable. This error exhibit an exponential function for the deflection of a simply supported beam

PaperID: AJERD0401-05; Pages: 38-48

Development of a Rectangular Mould with Vertical Screw Press for Polyurethane (Foam) Wastes Recycling Machine

Author(s): Arinola Bola AJAYI, Abiodun Felix POPOOLA, Habeeb Akorede MUSTAPHA, Tosin Emmanuel FOLARIN, Samuel Olabode AFOLABI

Abstract: This paper presents the development of a rectangular mould with a manually operated vertical screw press for recycling of polyurethane foams. The polyurethane foams find their uses in different aspects of mankind thereby leaving enormous wastes behind after their useful lives. Polyurethane foams are non-biodegradable products that pollute the ecosystems. One of the solutions to the menace of environmental pollutions is to recycle the wastes, which can be mechanical, chemical or waste to energy conversion. Recycling should therefore be efficient and affordable to carry out, in other to produce new products from old foams wastes and save the environments since they are not biodegradable. With recycling, new useful products can be achieved. The polyurethanes processing industries generate enormous wastes and utilize big industrial machines for recycling these polyurethane wastes. It then means that these industries recycle only wastes they generate during their operations but not the old polyurethane foams which are abundantly polluting the environment. The costs of the big industrial machines make it almost impossible for small cottage industries to be engaged in recycling of old and used foams after their useful lives. This brought about the idea of developing small scale and cost-effective rectangular mould with vertical screw press for polyurethane (foam) wastes recycling machine. The manual vertical screw press acts to compress shredded foam crumbs in the rectangular mould at a volume ratio of 6:1 which is the same as the industrial recycling machine. The vertical screw press is a threaded shaft attached to a rectangular plate via a special locking system; the threaded shaft was carefully supported by two 30 mm rod at equidistant from the screw, this ensure the free vertical movement of the plate into the rectangular mould for effective compression, the entire component was suspended in the mould via a suspension bar on the frame. The two samples produced with the recycling machine and a reference sample from the industry were taken to University of Lagos Research Laboratory for testing and comparison of their mechanical properties. The results obtained from samples produced with this recycling machine were comparable to the results obtained from the reference sample produced by the industrial recycling machine. The chemical loss reduced from 150 kg on the industrial recycling machine to 3.0 kg on this small-scale machine was achieved, which translate to about 50:1 loss reduction. Furthermore, the same densification as those of the industrial machine was also achieved.

PaperID: AJERD0401-06; Pages: 49-61

Appraisal of Sodium and Fluoride Variability in Groundwater Quality and Health Threat on Human: A Case Study of Abuja North-Central, Nigeria

Author(s): Ehizemhen Christopher IGIBAH, Lucia Omolayo AGASHUA, Abubakar Adavudi SADIQ

Abstract:Poisonous stuffs tend to come into water physiques thru human-induced and geodetic sources, hence persistent drinking water monitoring schemes are crucial. The target of this paper was to estimate the human health threat posed thru superfluity fluoride (F) and sodium (Na+) accumulation in borehole water utilized for both domestic as well as consumption deeds. In this paper, the accumulation of fluoride (F) in borehole water varied at distinct sites, span from 0.47mg/L to 1.84 mg/L with a mean value of 1.28 mg/L whereas that of sodium ranged from 55.98mg/L to 515.45mg/L with average value of 260.19mg/L. The Hierarchical cluster scrutiny (HCS) revealed three common clusters in which the samplings could be categorized. For Total Hazard Index (THI) 100 and 28% (adults and children respectively) are above 1.0 for sodium ingesting whereas all fluoride are below one unity in all the scrutinized locations.

PaperID: AJERD0401-07; Pages: 62-73

The Sway of Optimal Network Reconfiguration and Contingency Analysis on Electric Power Distribution System

Author(s): France Onoabedje AKPOJEDJE and Emmanuel Apoyi OGUJOR

Abstract:The aim of carrying out optimal network reconfiguration and contingency analysis of electric power distribution system under normal operating conditions is to reduce the total power losses of the network or to balance the load of the system’s feeders. This is an important part of the distribution network operation to improve the system availability, reliability, stability and also, to see its effects when applied. However, the main objectives of the distribution network engineers are power losses minimization, maintenance of good voltage profile, minimum feeders’ current levels and stability of the network. Therefore, this paper proposed the sway of optimal network reconfiguration (ONR) and contingency analysis (CA) of the Ugbowo 2×15 MVA, 33/11 kV distribution network for high system power loss reduction, feeders’ load balancing and voltage profile improvement. The binary version of the particle swarm optimization (BPSO) algorithm was used to optimally select the switches in the network and it was programmed in MATPOWER and ran in MATLAB R2017a version. Line contingency analysis was also done and the simulation of the power flow was run again to see it impact. The simulations result revealed that the proposed techniques optimally selected the switches that produced the best configuration and stable network which resulted in minimum power loss, reduction of the load balancing index, balancing of the feeders’ load and improving the system’s voltage profile in most of the buses of the network within tolerance levels of ±6%.

PaperID: AJERD0401-08; Pages: 74-83

Numerical Study of Heat Transfer in Scissors-shaped Roofs

Author(s): Ola KAMIYO

Abstract: Thermal characteristics of the attic space are known to influence the thermal comfort and energy efficiency within the space directly below it. Among past studies reported, very few have been on complex-shaped rooftops which are becoming common. This study therefore focused on steady-state, two-dimensional laminar natural convection heat transfer of air in long, scissors-shaped attic of selected pitch angles heated through the ceiling. A finite volume numerical simulation approach is adopted. Results obtained show that the streamlines depict multiple, recirculating, counter-rotating cells symmetrically positioned within the enclosures. The intensity and size of the vortices decrease from the middle of an enclosure towards the bottom corners and as the enclosure pitch increases. The pattern of the variation synchronizes with the detachment of the hot plumes from and the attachment of the cold jets to the hot wall. Heat transfer rate is high at locations where cold jets drop on the hot wall but low where hot air separates from the hot wall. The mean Nusselt number for the hot ceiling decreases with the pitch angle. Therefore, in temperate region, to minimize the rate of heat loss from a heated occupied space below into the attic above through the ceiling, the pitch angle of the roof should be relatively high. For low-pitch roof buildings in such location, the ceiling insulation should be of appropriate quality and thickness.

PaperID: AJERD0401-09; Pages: 84-97

Numerical Investigation of the Phase Distribution of Dispersed Water in Oil Flow in a Pipe with Valve

Author(s): Bildad DakwaL LENGS, Nicholas Sylvester GUKOP, Adesanmi ADEGOKE

Abstract: In this work, a multiphase flow of water in oil in a pipeline fitted with a valve was studied using numerical analysis method. Grid was generated in ICEM software for a pipe of 0.1 m interior diameter and length 12 m and simulation was done in Ansys FLUENT 12.1 computational environment. The standard k-epsilon Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes model was used to solve the turbulence in the flow. A mixture of oil of density 825 kg/m3 and viscosity 2 mPa s; and water of density 998.2 kg/m3 and viscosity 1.003 mPa s was studied for mixture velocities of 0.6 -3.0 m/s and water input volume fraction 20%. The results revealed that water wet the lower surface of the pipe and oil wet the upper surface of the pipe at mixture velocity of 0.6 m/s at positions 3 m from the valve centre pivot. As the mixture velocity is increased, the amount of water in contact with the pipe surface decreases. Around the valve the water hold-up increases as the flow approaches the valve at position 0.05 m before the valve, but drastically reduced at position 0.05 m after the valve centre. The results led to the conclusion that the presence of a valve in an oil-water flow affect the phase distribution of the water and the oil in a way that increases the pipe susceptibility to corrosion; just before the valve as a result of water in contact with the pipe, and after the pipe as a result of erosion from high velocity.

PaperID: AJERD0401-10;

Integration of Public Surveillance System into Telecommunication Regulatory Framework in Nigeria

Author(s): Abayomi Temitope AYODELE, Bayode Julius OLORUNFEMI, Sunday Emmanuel KAYODE, Ajayi Peter OSASONA

Abstract: The objective of this research is aimed at meeting the need for a well-managed and an adequately regulated, and legislation of specific area of Social Security system; the Surveillance system using Close Circuit Television (CCTV) in Nigeria. Interviews and questionnaire were adopted to obtain primary data to assess the degree of demand and yarning of average Nigerian. This process signifies adopting the process of Quality Function Deployment (QFD), which entails ensuring that a prospected deployment meets the yarning of the consumers or the stakeholders. The prospected legislation is tagged ‘Inter-passages Surveillance and Un-coverage’ Act (pronounced as ‘I See You’ Act.), to pass a message of notice of caution to everyone. The integration with Telecommunication Regulatory body will enhance quick and intelligent globalization of service and informed holistic structural implementation. This work would therefore be useful for government, corporate bodies, community, area, town, local area, States, and individuals on surveillance work, network, and management for an informed steer on her prospected formulation, regulation, and legislation of surveillance CCTV system.