Volume 5 Issue 1

PaperID: AJERD0501-01; Pages: 1-13

Variability of Rice Hush and Kaolin Clay as Locally Available Geopolymer Materials on Cement Stabilized Lateritic Soil

Author(s): Christopher Ehizemhen IGIBAH, Olugbenga Oludolapo AMU

Abstract: The strength of a fine-grained lateritic soil from three (3) different localities on Abuja – Lokoja road where road failure happen was treated with rice husk ash (RSA), cement and sodium silicate activator (SSA), with varying percentage examined by means of Atterberg, CBR, and triaxial shear tests. This result confirms that 6% cement– 8% KCP mixtures, and 6% cement–8%-GP mixtures attain the maximum CBR value, respectively, 100% and 125.75%. Lateritic soil treated with 2% stabilizer yielded CBR values of more than 405%, that is for soil treated with 6% sodium silicate, the CBR values increased at least by 14% compared to unimproved soil. Likewise, the outcome of triaxial compressive strength demonstrates that the cohesion of the stabilized sample was low at the highest angle of internal friction which makes soil very plastic. The lowest cohesion of 15 kN/m2, 11 kN/m2 and 10 kN/m2 was achieved at 8% KCP, 4% SSA and 6% RHA at highest frictional angle of 20°, 28° and 28° for KCP, SSA and RHA respectively.

PaperID: AJERD0501-02; Pages: 14-21

Evaluating the Filtration and Mud Cake Properties of Clay Deposits from a Part of Niger Delta, Up-Agbarho, Ughelli Town, Delta State, Nigeria

Author(s): Felix Elumiyovwino OTITIGBE

Abstract: The drilling mud clay, till date, is still being imported, and there is no insight on when it will stop except our local clay is found suitable as the imported clay. This is the basis of this research work. This study, to a large extent, will reduce the huge millions of dollars spent on importing the clay, and stop the additional cost created on the overall cost of drilling expenses, and increase revenue generation for the government. In addition, generate employment opportunity and trigger industrial growth. This experimental work evaluates the suitability of local clay filtration properties (water loss and filter cake thickness) and was compared with the imported mud clay to ensure it agreed with the acceptable API specification standard. From the experimental values, it’s found the local clay has high fluid losses as seen the values 95.1 cc, 63.0 cc, 47.4 cc, 34.2 cc, 25.7 cc, 19.2 cc than 9.9 cc, 3.8 cc, 3.2 cc, 2.8 cc, 2.6 cc, 1.8 cc of imported clay. The mud cake thickness value of the local clay-mud is 2.50 mm while the conventional, is 1.03 mm. This indicates that the local mud cake had high water loss than the conventional mud, and which causes hole problems like: tight hole which resulted in excessive drag, increase in pressure surges due to reduced hole diameter, differential sticking due to an increased pipe contact with filter cake, and excessive formation damage and evaluation problems with wire-line logs. However, after beneficiating the local drilling mud with starch and dextrid, the result review dextrid was more superior to starch on both drilling mud samples. In addition, the local clay mud exhibited the characteristic of an API specification for drilling mud if further beneficiated, which then the local content development agenda would have achieved, would then be use as a substitute for the conventional imported clay and employment and industrial development and growth.

PaperID: AJERD0501-03; Pages: 22-30

D-Optimal Optimization of Desert Date Oil Extraction

Author(s): Saidat Olanipekun GIWA, Kabir Abogunde ABDULYEKEEN, Ifeanyi Fredrick EKWUNIFE, Kabir GARBA, Abdulwahab GIWA

Abstract: This work was carried out to investigate the optimum conditions of temperature, time, solvent to biomass ratio and particles size on n-hexane extraction efficiency measured in terms of amount of oil extracted in g. D-Optimal Design of Response Surface Methodology was used to obtain 28 experimental runs, according to which oil was extracted from ground desert date seed kernel with the aid of Soxhlet apparatus. The particle size was used as a categorical factor at two different levels (0.6 mm and 1 mm) and other factors were numeric in nature. The temperature, time and solvent to biomass ratio were in the range of 50-70 oC, 1-4 h and 10 – 20 mL/g respectively. After the runs, obtained experimental data were fitted to cubic model and statistical significance of the model was evaluated using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results obtained showed that the reduced cubic equation obtained was significant statistically with p-value of 0.001, which was found to be less than 5% at 95% confidence level. Also, based on the same criterion, the significant terms in the model were discovered to include time, solvent to biomass ratio and particle size. It was, however, noticed that the effect of temperature was insignificant on the model. The optimum operating conditions found was 60 oC, 4 h, 15 (150 mL/10 g) and 0.6 mm. The maximum amount of oil extracted experimentally at these conditions was 6.08 g, which compared well with the predicted value of 6.117 g.

PaperID: AJERD0501-04; Pages: 31-40

Effect of California Bearing Ratio and Unconfined Compressive Strength Analysis on Mechanical Strength and Microstructure of Kaolin Clay Powder Blend SSA Geopolymer, and Its Behaviour at Different Percentages

Author(s): Olugbenga Oludolapo AMU, Christopher Ehizemhen IGIBAH, Bamitale Dorcas OLUYEMI-AYIBIOWU, Olumuyiwa Samson ADERINOLA, Adetayo Oluwaseun ADEDAPO, Lucia Omolayo AGASHUA, Ayobami Adebola BUSARI

Abstract: The stabilization capability of kaolin clay powder (KCP), Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and rice husk ash (RHA) was scrutinized using laboratory scrutiny. This was meant at assessing the effect of KCP, OPC and RHA on the stabilization of three lateritic soils for use as sub-base pavement layer materials. Three soils (Soil A, B and C) were improved with various percentages (via weight of dry soil) at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% for all stabilizing agents and compacted via BSL (British Standard Light) energy. Their impacts were assessed on the strength physiognomies such as UCS (unconfined compressive strength), OMC (optimum moisture content), and California bearing ratio (CBR), and MDD (maximum dry density tests based on ASTM (American Standard Testing Materials) codes. The result reveals that MDD improved with increase in the quantities of all the additive (SSA, KCP and geopolymer) content, while OMC for KCP reduces from 18.65% at 0% to 14.02% at 10%. Both Sodium Silicate Activator (SSA) and geopolymer increase from 18.65% at 0% to 18.86% and 22.20% at 10% respectively.  Similarly, it displays highest CBR of the soil from 10.88% at 0% to 12.84%, 112.95% and 144.45% for SSA, KCP and geopolymer, this specify that lateritic soil treated with 2% stabilizer yielded CBR values of more than 405%.

PaperID: AJERD0501-05; Pages: 41-50

Improving Thermal Comfort and Ventilation in Commercial Buses in Nigeria in Covid-19 Era

Author(s): Ola KAMIYO

Abstract: Studies abound on thermal comfort assessment of passenger cabin of various types of cars. Not many are known for commuter buses especially the types common in African cities with hot and humid weather. Also, concerns have been raised on the spread of the corona virus among passengers of these often-overcrowded buses. This study therefore investigates experimentally the level of heat build-up within the passenger segments of Volkswagen minibus, small and big Mercedes Benz 911 commuter buses in Lagos, Nigeria under varying conditions with the aim of suggesting ventilation methods that can mitigate the challenges. Using a sensitive digital thermometer, air temperature in the passenger segmentis measured at strategic locations within the bus for varying number of passengers when loading, when in motion and when held-up in traffic. The results show that, when loading, the number of passengers in the vehicle correlates with the rate of metabolic heat generated. While in motion, air temperature drops steadily as the bus speed increases due to cool outdoor air inflow. However, when in traffic, the heat level becomes very high with the temperature up to 41 oC in some cases. Air convection within such environment encourages the spread of the corona virus. To mitigate the challenges, two cost-effective and efficient ventilation methods are proposed. It is believed that enforcing the implementation of the ventilation methods will not only greatly improve the comfort of the passengers in the buses but also minimize number of passengers getting infected with the corona virus while commuting.

PaperID: AJERD0501-06; Pages: 51-64

Development and Performance Evaluation of a Castor Oil Extractor

Author(s): Emmanuel Ifeoluwa OJEKUNLE, John ISA and Ayoola Patrick OLALUSI

Abstract: This paper presents the development and performance evaluation of a castor seed oil expeller. The machine’s various components were designed using standard engineering equations and fabricated with locally available materials. The oil expeller was powered by a 3 phase, 4.0 kW electric motor and a 1:20 speed reduction gear. The study was carried out using physical properties such as screw speed, roasting time and roasting temperature. 500g per run (27 runs in total) of castor seeds were subjected to different temperatures, (80, 100 and 120 oC) and at different roasting times, (10, 20 and 30 minutes). The screw speed was varied at 27, 39 and 51 rpm. The effect of the roasting temperature was seen to increase the efficiency of the oil expeller from 42% to 63% as it increases from 80 oC to 105 oC and then reduces the efficiency to 47% as it further increases to 120 oC. Also, the increase in roasting time from 10 minutes to 30 minutes gave an overall increase in the efficiency of the machine from 42% to 62% and the increase in screw speed from 27 rpm to 39 rpm reduces the efficiency of the expeller from 62% to 60% and further increase in the speed of the expeller increased the efficiency back to 67%. The efficiency was highest at the roasting temperature of 100 oC, roasting time of 20 minutes and screw speed of 51 rpm. The highest efficiency of the expeller is 69.4% and it has a capacity of 6.74 kg/hour. The castor seed oil expeller is recommended for use in small scale production of castor seed oil.